|(Click to enlarge)|
|(Mapping Specialists, Ltd.)|
An island country in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle. Norse settlers arrived c. 850-875, and Christianity was introduced c. 1000. Iceland passed to Norway in 1262 and, with Norway, to Denmark in 1380. In 1918 it became a sovereign state still nominally under the Danish king, until Icelanders voted for full independence in 1944. Reykjavík is the capital and the largest city. Population: 302,000.
Icelander Ice'land·er n.
The first Icelandic daguerreotypist was Helgi Sigurdsson (1815-88), who learned the process while abortively studying medicine in Copenhagen. He was active from 1846, the year that the first foreign visitor photographed in Iceland. However, notwithstanding its magnificent landscape, Iceland offered few inducements to early photographers. In winter it was too cold and dark, and in summer midges stuck to collodion plates. Materials were difficult to obtain and store. Moreover, unusually among European countries, there was practically no tradition of portraiture, and photographers in effect had to create it, once a market had formed. But in 1860 Reykjavik, the largest town, still had only 1, 444 inhabitants. Its first commercial studio was opened by Sigfús Eymundsson (1837-1911) in 1867.
Urbanization boosted photographers' numbers, although not significantly until the 1890s, when 21 new recruits entered the profession. Nicolina Weywadt (1848-1921) and Anna Schiöth (1846-1921) were among several women active since the late 19th century. At first photographers trained in Denmark, but later did so at home. Although output in the first decades was mostly portraiture, from c. 1875 landscapes became popular, linked to well-known tourist spots. Iceland's first photographic publication was a portfolio of twelve views, six by Eymundsson, issued by the Tourist Association in 1896. Magnús Ólafsson (1862-1937) made panoramic landscapes, and published Iceland's first photographic handbook in 1914. By the 1930s and 1940s the importance of landscape work had increased, with exhibitions and a growing number of photographic publications, motivated partly by commercial, partly by patriotic reasons (Iceland had been granted autonomy under the Danish crown in 1918, and would become independent in 1944). Town dwellers were drawn to the wild terrain of the highlands, and a romantic view of the land characterized the imagery of both amateur photographers—increasingly numerous since the 1920s—and professionals. Occupation during the Second World War by British, then American forces galvanized the photographic market and strengthened cultural links with the USA.
The emergence of amateur photographic societies after 1950, as well as closer relations with foreign countries, further encouraged exhibiting. The influence of movements like Abstract Expressionism also made itself felt. Otherwise, however, international currents were slow to have an impact and photography only gradually achieved a significant position in Icelandic cultural life, reflecting its history as a primarily practical and commercial rather than expressive medium.
— Inga Lára Baldvinsdóttir
- Balvinsdóttir, I. L., and Hafsteinsson, S. B. (eds.), ‘Photography in Iceland’,
History of Photography, 23(1999)
Due to its relative geographical isolation, ballet did not arrive in the country until the 1930s when Asta Nordmann returned from study overseas to set up a school. Productions choreographed by herself and performed by her students were performed in Reykjavik. The National Theatre was opened in 1950 and a ballet school founded in 1952. Helgi Tomasson was trained there. The professional Icelandic Dance Company was founded by Alan Carter in 1973, with ten dancers trained in ballet, folk, and modern dance. In 1975 they staged Coppélia. Carter was succeeded in 1975 by Natalia Conus who introduced stylistic elements from the Bolshoi. Later choreographers to work with the company have included Yuri Chatal, Dolin, Jochen Ulrich, and Nanna Ólafsdóttir, who staged her own version of Daphnis and Chloe in 1985, the first full-length ballet by an Icelander.
Land of Fire & Ice
Extraordinary Islands > Island Nations > Going It Alone
Airports: Keflavik International Airport.
Hotels: Hotel Bjork $$ ☎ 354/511-3777; www.bjorkhotelreykjavik.com Hotel Vik $$ ☎ 354/588-5588; www.hotelvik.is
When you get off the plane at Keflavik Airport, it's clear right away: You're not in Kansas anymore. Steam whiffs out of cracks in the treeless basalt plain; the air has a definite sulfuric tang. Iceland is perched right on a geologic hot spot, with its geysers and volcanoes constantly rumbling. The same forces that heaved this quirky island up out of the Atlantic in the first place are still at work, shifting and reshaping its stony terrain.
Long ago, when the first Danish Vikings landed here, they didn't dream up any evocative name for it—they just called it Island. In English, however, it came out as Iceland, and ever since, English-speaking schoolchildren have imagined it as a land of glaciers and polar snowdrifts. In fact Iceland isn't icy at all. Between the hot springs bubbling beneath its crust and the warming effects of the Atlantic Current, it's surprisingly temperate for an island this far north.
Iceland's capital, Reykjavik, is one of my favorite cities in the world. It looks like an overgrown fishing village, with its colorfully painted boxy houses—most made of corrugated iron, a must in this timberless land—surrounding a harbor full of fishing boats. Yet I find it a refreshingly cosmopolitan city, with small cutting-edge museums, trendy shopping, a lively dining scene, and thriving nightlife. Don't expect fusty palaces or a crumbling medieval core—Reykjavik was founded only in the late 1700s, and as a longtime Danish colony (it won its independence only in 1944), it's never had resident royals.
There are two classic day trips out of Reykjavik. Forty minutes southwest of the city, you can bob around the warm turquoise waters of the Blue Lagoon spa complex 240 Grindavik; (☎ 354/420-8800; www.bluelagoon.com) incongruously sunk into a lava field, fringed by black-sand beaches and tumbled chunks of volcanic rock. An hour's drive southeast, in Selfoss, you'll find the ancient meeting place of the world's first parliament, the Althing, at Thingvellir (☎ 354/482-2660; www.thingvellir.is) There are few historic buildings left in this mossy lakeside dell, but the visitor center helps you re-create the scene in your imagination. An Icelandic flag marks the site of the Law Rock (Lögberg), where the elected Speaker of the Law announced new rulings; grass-covered mounds cover the ancient market stalls that sprang up each summer when the Althing was in session.
Other excursions depend on your interests—pony trekking, whale-watching, puffin spotting on the sea cliffs, salmon fishing in glacial streams, and golf on more than 50 challenging courses (you can play around-the-clock during the summer's midnight sun). Hiking through the central highland's unearthly volcanic landscapes is a special treat—after soaking in the bathtub-warm natural thermal pools of Landmannalaugar, hike into the weirdly colored mountains of the surrounding Fjallabak Nature Reserve, staying overnight at mountain huts run by the Iceland Touring Association Ferdafélag Islands (☎ 354/568-2533; www.fi.is) The 3- to 4-day walk from Landmannalaugar to the wooded nature reserve of Pórsmörk is the premier hike in Iceland.
World of Fire & Ice
Location: Landmannalaugar, Iceland
Disappearing Places > Big Pictures > Islands
With more than 200 active volcanoes, iceland is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. In some areas, basaltic sandy beaches, which result from volcanic eruption, threaten to overrun green areas, and wind erosion affects native habitats. Overgrazing, once a serious problem, is now somewhat controlled, and many landscapes have returned to their green origins.
When you get off the plane at Keflavik Airport, it's clear right away: You've entered another world. Steam whiffs out of cracks in the treeless basalt plain; the air has a definite sulphuric tang. Iceland is perched right on a geologic hot spot, with its active geysers of the Atlantic shifting and reshaping its stony terrain. As recently as the late 18th century, an eruption wiped out a quarter of the population. Talk about sitting in the hot seat.
Nowhere is this geothermal instability more striking than in the central highlands of Iceland. It's like a world that is still being created—a world of shapes and colors you've only seen in dreams. The earth steams and bubbles; conical volcanoes rise like islands in a sea of black sand. Twisted lava, cracked and cooled in a thousand grotesque shapes, seems to have eyes that follow you wherever you go. It's a landscape so lunar, NASA astronauts trained here in preparation for landing on the moon. And of the many awesome spots in Iceland's unearthly interior, none is more spectacular than the hot springs of Landmannalaugar.
One-day bus trips roll out from Reykjavik in summer to Landmannalaugar, quickie excursions that leave time for nothing but a look around and a brief dip in the bathtub-warm natural thermal pools. Yet one look at the nearby mountains, undulating like folds of silk and tinted with rare mineral colors—blues, yellows, bright reds, even shocking pink—and you'll itch to explore them. So give yourselves time to hike into those bewitching mountains, along the marked trails of the surrounding Fjallabak Nature Reserve, staying overnight at one of the mountain huts run by the Iceland Touring Association (Ferdafélag Islands). In July and August they book up far in advance, so plan accordingly.
If you're up for more than short forays, try the 3- to 4-day walk from Landmannalaugar to þórsmörk, sleeping in mountain huts along the route. It's the premier hike in Iceland, through a stark terrain of snow, ice, and rock. At the far end, the designated nature reserve of þórsmörk is a welcome contrast, a softer landscape with woods and grass nestling among mountains and glaciers. Ah, that's the magic of Iceland.
Land and People
Deep fjords indent the coasts of Iceland, particularly in the north and west. The island itself is a geologically young basalt plateau, averaging 2,000 ft (610 m) in height (Öraefajökull, c.6,950 ft/2,120 m high, is the highest point) and culminating in vast icefields, of which the Vatnajökull, in the southeast, is the largest. There are about 200 volcanoes, many of them active; among them are Katla (4,961 ft/1,512 m), Hekla (4,892 ft/1,491 m), and Laki (2,684 ft/818 m). The eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes have at times also affected the rest of Europe, as with the sulfur-dioxed haze produced by Laki's 1783 eruption, and the ash ejected into the atmosphere during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull interfered with air travel in much of Europe. Hot springs abound and are used for inexpensive heating; the great Geysir is particularly famous. The watershed of Iceland runs roughly east-west; the chief river, the Jökulsá, flows N into the AxarfjörÐur (there are several other rivers of the same name).
The climate is relatively mild and humid (especially in the west and south), owing to the proximity of the North Atlantic Drift; however, N and E Iceland have a polar, tundralike climate. Grasses predominate; timber is virtually absent, and much of the land is barren. (Some of this is a result of human habitition, which led to deforestation and overgrazing.) Only about one fourth of the island is habitable, and practically all the larger inhabited places are located on the coast; they are Reykjavík, Akureyri, HafnarfjörÐur, SiglufjörÐur, Akranes, and IsafjörÐur.
The population, until recently largely homogeneous and isolated, is descended mainly from Norse settlers and their slaves. (This homogeneity, combined with longstanding genealogical records, has made Icelanders the subject of fruitful genetic study.) More than 85% of the people belong to the established Lutheran Church, but there is complete religious freedom. The national language is Icelandic (Old Norse), although English, other Nordic languages, and German are also spoken. Virtually all Icelanders are literate; they read more books per capita than any other nation.
About 15% of the land is potentially productive, but agriculture, cultivating mainly hay, potatoes, and turnips, is restricted less than 1% of the total area. Fruits and vegetables are raised in greenhouses. There are extensive grazing lands, used mainly for sheep raising, but also for horses and cattle. Fishing is the most important industry. Aside from aluminum smelting and ferrosilicon production, Iceland has little heavy industry and relies on imports for many of the necessities and luxuries of life. More than half of Iceland's gross national product comes from the communications, trade, and service industries. Tourism is also important. The country has expanded its hydroelectric and geothermal energy resources to reduce dependence on oil imports, and roughly 90% of all homes are now heated by geothermal energy.
Fish and fish products, aluminum, animal products, ferrosilicon, and diatomite are the main exports; machinery and equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles, and manufactured goods are imported. Most trade is with Germany, Great Britain, the United States, and the Netherlands.)
Iceland is governed under the constitution of 1944 as amended. The president, who is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post, is popularly elected to a four-year term; there are no term limits. The head of government is the prime minister. The legislature is the unicameral Althing, whose 63 members are popularly elected to four-year terms. Administratively, Iceland is divided into eight regions.
Settlement and Subjection
Iceland may be the Ultima Thule of the ancients. Irish monks visited it before the 9th cent., but abandoned it on the arrival (c.850-875) of Norse settlers, many of whom had fled from the domination of Harold I. The Norse settlements also contained many Irish and Scottish slaves, mainly women. In 930 a general assembly, the Althing, was established near Reykjavík at Thingvellir, and Christianity was introduced c.1000 by the Norwegian Olaf I, although paganism seems to have survived for a time. These events are preserved in the literature of 13th-century Iceland, where Old Norse literature reached its greatest flowering. (Modern Icelandic is virtually the same language as that of the sagas.)
Politically, Iceland became a feudal state, and the bloody civil wars of rival chieftains facilitated Norwegian intervention. The attempt of Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241) to establish the full control of King Haakon IV of Norway over Iceland was a failure; however, Haakon incorporated Iceland into the archdiocese of Trondheim and between 1261 and 1264 obtained acknowledgment of his suzerainty by the Icelanders. Norwegian rule brought order, but high taxes and an imposed judicial system caused much discontent. When, with Norway, Iceland passed (1380) under the Danish crown, the Danes showed even less concern for Icelandic welfare; a national decline (1400-1550) set in. Lutheranism was imposed by force (1539-51) over the opposition of Bishop Jon Aresson; the Reformation brought new intellectual activity.
The 17th and 18th cent. were, in many ways, disastrous for Iceland. English, Spanish, and Algerian pirates raided the coasts and ruined trade; epidemics and volcanic eruptions killed a large part of the population; and the creation (1602) of a private trading company at Copenhagen, with exclusive rights to the Iceland trade, caused economic ruin. The private trade monopoly was at last revoked in 1771 and transferred to the Danish crown, and in 1786 trade with Iceland was opened to all Danish and Norwegian merchants. The exclusion of foreign traders was lifted in 1854.
The 19th cent. brought a rebirth of national culture (see Icelandic literature) and strong agitation for independence. The great leader of this movement was Jón SigurÐsson. The Althing, abolished in 1800, was reestablished in 1843; in 1874 a constitution and limited home rule were granted; and in 1918, Iceland became a sovereign state in personal union with Denmark. The German occupation (1940) of Denmark in World War II gave the Althing an opportunity to assume the king's prerogatives and the control of foreign affairs. Great Britain sent (1940) a military force to defend the island from possible German attack, and this was replaced after 1941 by U.S. forces.
In 1944 an overwhelming majority of Icelanders voted to terminate the union with Denmark; the kingdom of Iceland was proclaimed an independent republic on June 17, 1944. Sveinn Björrnsson was the first president. Iceland was admitted to the United Nations in 1946; it joined in the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In 1946, Iceland granted the United States the right to use the American-built airport at Keflavík for military as well as commercial planes. Under a 1951 defense pact, U.S. forces were stationed there (the base was closed in 2006). Björnsson was succeeded by Ásgeir Ásgeirsson.
Relations with Great Britain were strained when Iceland, in order to protect its vital fishing industry, extended (1958) the limits of its territorial waters from 4 to 12 mi (6.4-19.3 km). The conflict, which at times led to exchanges of fire between Icelandic coast guard vessels and British destroyers, was resolved in 1961 when Great Britain accepted the new limits. Kristjárn Eldjárn was elected president in 1968 and reelected in 1972 and 1976. Iceland joined the European Free Trade Association in 1970. In 1971 elections the Independence party-Social Democratic party coalition government, which had governed for 12 years, lost its majority, and a leftist coalition came to power.
The dispute with Britain over fishing rights (widely known as the "cod wars") was renewed in 1972 when Iceland unilaterally extended its territorial waters to 50 mi (80 km) offshore and forbade foreign fishing vessels in the new zone. An interim agreement was reached in 1973, whereby the British would limit their annual catch and restrict themselves to certain fishing areas and specified numbers and types of vessels.
In Jan., 1973, the Helgafell volcano on Heimaey island erupted, damaging the town of Vestmannaeyjar. Later in the year Iceland and the United States began revising the 1951 defense pact, with a view toward ending the U.S. military presence.
A split in the ruling coalition over economic policies caused the Althing to be dissolved in 1974; following elections, the Independence party formed a new government. Iceland extended its fishing limits to 200 mi (320 km) in 1975, which, after more skirmishes with Great Britain, was finally recognized in 1976. Vigdís Finnbogadóttir was elected president in 1980, thus becoming the world's first popularly elected female head of state; she was reelected in 1984, 1988, and 1992. DavíÐ Oddsson, of the conservative Independence party, became prime minister in 1991; his center-right coalition was returned to office in 1995, 1999, and, narrowly, 2003. In 1996, Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson was elected to succeed Finnbogadóttir, who retired as president. The highly popular Grímsson was reappointed to the post by parliament without an election in 2000; he was reelected in 2004.
Oddsson resigned and exchanged posts with coalition partner and foreign minister Halldór Ásgrímsson, of the Progressive party, in Sept., 2004 (Oddsson stepped down as foreign minister a year later). In June, 2006, after the Progressive party suffered losses in local elections, Ásgrímsson resigned as prime minister; he was succeeded in the post by Geir Hilmar Haarde, the foreign minister and a member of the Independence party. The next year, in the May, 2007, parliamentary elections, the Progressives suffered sharp losses and left the ruling coalition; the Independence party formed a new coalition with the center-left Social Democrats; Haarde remained prime minister.
In Oct., 2008, the global financial crisis led to the collapse and government nationalization of Iceland's largest banks, which had taken on enormous debt in order to expand aggressively internationally. Many of the banks' depositors were individuals, companies, organizations, and local governments elsewhere in Europe, and the banks' collapse was aggravated and accelerated when Britain seized their British assets. As a result of the banking crisis, Iceland's currency also dropped sharply in value. The situation stabilized in November when Iceland secured significant loans from the International Monetary Fund and Scandinavian countries, but Iceland experienced a sharp rise in interest rates and unemployment and a sharp drop in housing prices.
In Jan., 2009, the country's severe economic crisis forced the government to resign. An interim center-left minority government, consisting of the Social Democrats and the Left-Green Movement, was formed in February. Jóhanna SigurÐardóttir, a Social Democrat and former social affairs minister, became prime minister; she was Iceland's first woman prime minister and the modern world's first openly gay head of government. Early elections, held in April, resulted in a majority for the ruling center-left coalition.
In June the government agreed to a 15-year plan to repay British and Dutch governments for outlays they made to depositors who lost money in Icelandic banks. The Althing narrowly voted in July in favor of applying to join the European Union. Legislation enacted in August concerning repayment terms for the British and Dutch met with objections from them. A new, more stringent law narrowly passed in December, but broad public opposition to it led the president to refuse to sign it and submit it to a referendum (Mar. 2010) in which the voters overwhelmingly rejected it. A less stringent repayment plan was agreed upon in Dec., 2010, and enacted in Feb., 2011, but the president again refused to sign it and a majority of Icelanders rejected it in a referendum (Apr., 2011). Despite these disagreements over repayment, by the end of the 2011 the country had emerged from its financial collapse and begun to grow again economically.
See V. H. Malmström, A Regional Geography of Iceland (1958); A. Líndal, Ripples from Iceland (1962); B. Guthmundsson, The Origin of the Icelanders (tr. 1967); B. Gröndal, Iceland: From Neutrality to NATO Membership (1971); V. Stefansson, Iceland (1939, repr. 1971); J. J. Horton, Iceland (1983); M. S. Magnusson, Iceland in Transition (1985); E. P. Durrenberger and G. Palsson, ed., The Anthropology of Iceland (1989).
- Iceland proclaimed its independence from Denmark in 1944.
- It is a member of NATO.
- A unique combination of glaciers and plate tectonics has resulted in an unusual land surface, dominated by a rugged coastline, hot springs, geysers, and volcanoes.
The international dialing code for Iceland is: 354
|It is 8:36 AM, September 20, in Iceland.|
|Background:||Settled by Norwegian and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the world's oldest functioning legislative assembly, the Althing, established in 930. Independent for over 300 years, Iceland was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark. Fallout from the Askja volcano of 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread famine. Over the next quarter century, 20% of the island's population emigrated, mostly to Canada and the US. Limited home rule from Denmark was granted in 1874 and complete independence attained in 1944. Literacy, longevity, and social cohesion are first-rate by world standards.|
|Location:||Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the United Kingdom|
|Geographic coordinates:||65 00 N, 18 00 W|
|Map references:||Arctic Region|
|Area:||total: 103,000 sq km |
land: 100,250 sq km
water: 2,750 sq km
|Area - comparative:||slightly smaller than Kentucky|
|Land boundaries:||0 km|
|Maritime claims:||territorial sea: 12 nm |
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
|Climate:||temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers|
|Terrain:||mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords|
|Elevation extremes:||lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m |
highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,110 m (at Vatnajokull glacier)
|Natural resources:||fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite|
|Land use:||arable land: 0.07% |
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.93% (2005)
|Total renewable water resources:||170 cu km (2005)|
|Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):||total: 0.17 cu km/yr (34%/66%/0%) |
per capita: 567 cu m/yr (2003)
|Natural hazards:||earthquakes and volcanic activity|
|Environment - current issues:||water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment|
|Environment - international agreements:||party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Transboundary Air Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling |
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
|Geography - note:||strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe|
|Population:||306,694 (July 2009 est.)|
|Age structure:||0-14 years: 20.7% (male 32,268/female 31,308) |
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 104,158/female 101,584)
65 years and over: 12.2% (male 16,952/female 20,424) (2009 est.)
|Median age:||total: 35.1 years |
male: 34.6 years
female: 35.6 years (2009 est.)
|Population growth rate:||0.741% (2009 est.)|
|Birth rate:||13.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)|
|Death rate:||6.81 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)|
|Net migration rate:||0.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)|
|Urbanization:||urban population: 92% of total population (2008) |
rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
|Sex ratio:||at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female |
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
|Infant mortality rate:||total: 3.23 deaths/1,000 live births |
male: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
|Life expectancy at birth:||total population: 80.67 years |
male: 78.53 years
female: 82.9 years (2009 est.)
|Total fertility rate:||1.9 children born/woman (2009 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:||0.2% (2007 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:||220 (2007 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS - deaths:||fewer than 100 (2003 est.)|
|Nationality:||noun: Icelander(s) |
|Ethnic groups:||homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts 94%, population of foreign origin 6%|
|Religions:||Lutheran Church of Iceland 80.7%, Roman Catholic Church 2.5%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.4%, Hafnarfjorour Free Church 1.6%, other religions 3.6%, unaffiliated 3%, other or unspecified 6.2% (2006 est.)|
|Languages:||Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken|
|Literacy:||definition: age 15 and over can read and write |
total population: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
|School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):||total: 18 years |
male: 17 years
female: 19 years (2006)
|Education expenditures:||7.6% of GDP (2004)|
|Country name:||conventional long form: Republic of Iceland |
conventional short form: Iceland
local long form: Lydveldid Island
local short form: Island
|Government type:||constitutional republic|
|Capital:||name: Reykjavik |
geographic coordinates: 64 09 N, 21 57 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
|Administrative divisions:||8 regions; Austurland, Hofudhborgarsvaedhi, Nordhurland Eystra, Nordhurland Vestra, Sudhurland, Sudhurnes, Vestfirdhir, Vesturland|
|Independence:||1 December 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)|
|National holiday:||Independence Day, 17 June (1944)|
|Constitution:||16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944; amended many times|
|Legal system:||civil law system based on Danish law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction|
|Suffrage:||18 years of age; universal|
|Executive branch:||chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996) |
head of government: Prime Minister Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR (since 2 February 2009);
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: president, a largely ceremonial post, is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 28 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2012); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
note: the election for president planned for 28 June 2008 was never held because Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON had no challengers; he was sworn in on 1 August 2008; a coalition government of the Social Democratic Alliance and the Left-Green Movement, headed by Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR, assumed office 1 February 2009
|Legislative branch:||unicameral Parliament or Althing (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) |
elections: last held 25 April 2009 (elections to be held by NA 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Alliance 29.8%, Independence Party 23.7%, Left-Green Movement 21.7%, Progressive Party 14.8%, Citizens' Movement 7.2%, other 2.8%; seats by party - Social Democratic Alliance 20, Independence Party 16, Left-Green Alliance 14, Progressive Party 9, Citizens' Movement 4
|Judicial branch:||Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice); eight district courts (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice)|
|Political parties and leaders:||Citizens' Movement; Independence Party or IP [Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON, Jr.]; Left-Green Movement or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party or LP [Gudjon KRISTJANSSON]; Progressive Party or PP [Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON; Social Democratic Alliance or SDA [Johanna SIGUROARDOTTIR] (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SDP, Women's List)|
|Political pressure groups and leaders:||People's Voices [Hordur TORFARSON]; New Times; Civic Action Association [Gunnar SIGURDSSON]; The Association of Military Opponents [Stefan PALSSON]|
|International organization participation:||Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO|
|Diplomatic representation in the US:||chief of mission: Ambassador Hjalmar HANNESSON |
chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1704
telephone:  (202) 265-6653
FAX:  (202) 265-6656
consulate(s) general: New York
|Diplomatic representation from the US:||chief of mission: Ambassador Hjalmar HANNESSON |
embassy: Laufasvegur 21, 101 Reykjavik
mailing address: US Department of State, 5640 Reykjavik Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-5640
telephone:  562-9100
FAX:  562-9118
|Flag description:||blue with a red cross outlined in white extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)|
|Economy - overview:||Iceland's Scandinavian-type social-market economy combines a capitalist structure and free-market principles with an extensive welfare system, including generous housing subsidies. Prior to the 2008 crisis, Iceland had achieved high growth, low unemployment, and a remarkably even distribution of income. Government economic priorities have included stabilizing the krona, reducing the current account deficit, containing inflation, restructuring the financial sector, and diversifying the economy. The economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides 40% of export earnings and employs 5% of the work force. It remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, with new developments in software production, biotechnology, and tourism. Abundant geothermal power has attracted substantial foreign investment in the aluminum and hydropower sectors and boosted economic growth, although the financial crisis has put several investment projects on hold. Much of Iceland's economic growth in recent years came as the result of a boom in domestic demand following the rapid expansion of the country's financial sector. Domestic banks expanded aggressively in foreign markets, and consumers and businesses borrowed heavily in foreign-currency loans, following the privatization of the sector in the early 2000s. Worsening global financial conditions throughout 2008 resulted in a sharp depreciation of the krona vis-a-vis other major currencies. The foreign exposure of Icelandic banks, whose loans and other assets totaled more than 10 times the country's GDP, became unsustainable. Iceland's three largest banks collapsed in late 2008. The country negotiated over $10 billion in loans from the IMF and other countries to stabilize its currency and financial sector, and to guarantee foreign deposits in Icelandic banks. A protracted recession is expected in 2009 and 2010 with GDP likely to contract and unemployment likely to surpass 10%. The collapse of the financial system has led to a major shift in opinion in favor of joining the EU and adopting the euro. Previous opposition to this move stemmed from Icelanders' concern about losing control of their fishing resources. Iceland's coalition government collapsed in January 2009 following protests over growing joblessness and losses to personal savings.|
|GDP (purchasing power parity):||$12.15 billion (2008 est.) |
$12.59 billion (2007)
$12.01 billion (2006)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
|GDP (official exchange rate):||$19.02 billion (2008 est.)|
|GDP - real growth rate:||-3.5% (2008 est.) |
4.9% (2007 est.)
4.4% (2006 est.)
|GDP - per capita (PPP):||$39,900 (2008 est.) |
$41,700 (2007 est.)
$40,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
|GDP - composition by sector:||agriculture: 5% |
services: 68.5% (2008 est.)
|Labor force:||166,000 (2008 est.)|
|Labor force - by occupation:||agriculture: 3% |
services: 78% (2007)
|Unemployment rate:||1.6% |
note: this figure climbed to 9.4% as of February 2009 (2008 est.)
|Population below poverty line:||NA%|
|Household income or consumption by percentage share:||lowest 10%: NA% |
highest 10%: NA%
|Distribution of family income - Gini index:||25 (2005)|
|Investment (gross fixed):||21.9% of GDP (2008 est.)|
|Budget:||revenues: $7.582 billion |
expenditures: $7.159 billion (2008 est.)
|Fiscal year:||calendar year|
|Public debt:||23% of GDP (2008 est.)|
|Inflation rate (consumer prices):||13.4% (2008 est.)|
|Central bank discount rate:||15.25% (31 December 2007)|
|Commercial bank prime lending rate:||19.29% (31 December 2007)|
|Stock of money:||$6.64 billion (31 December 2007)|
|Stock of quasi money:||$15.05 billion (31 December 2006)|
|Stock of domestic credit:||$49.67 billion (31 December 2006)|
|Market value of publicly traded shares:||$40.56 billion (31 December 2007)|
|Agriculture - products:||potatoes, green vegetables; mutton, dairy products; fish|
|Industries:||fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production; geothermal power, tourism|
|Industrial production growth rate:||5.5% (2008 est.)|
|Electricity - production:||11.71 billion kWh (2007 est.)|
|Electricity - consumption:||9.312 billion kWh (2006 est.)|
|Electricity - exports:||0 kWh (2007 est.)|
|Electricity - imports:||0 kWh (2007 est.)|
|Electricity - production by source:||fossil fuel: 0.1% |
other: 17.5% (geothermal) (2001)
|Oil - production:||0 bbl/day (2007 est.)|
|Oil - consumption:||21,120 bbl/day (2007 est.)|
|Oil - exports:||860.8 bbl/day (2005)|
|Oil - imports:||17,450 bbl/day (2005)|
|Oil - proved reserves:||0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)|
|Natural gas - production:||0 cu m (2007 est.)|
|Natural gas - consumption:||0 cu m (2007 est.)|
|Natural gas - exports:||0 cu m (2007 est.)|
|Natural gas - imports:||0 cu m (2007 est.)|
|Natural gas - proved reserves:||0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)|
|Current account balance:||-$3.257 billion (2008 est.)|
|Exports:||$6.846 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)|
|Exports - commodities:||fish and fish products 70%, aluminum, animal products, ferrosilicon, diatomite|
|Exports - partners:||Netherlands 21.3%, Germany 13.3%, UK 13.2%, Ireland 7.7%, US 7.3%, Spain 4.6%, Japan 4.3% (2007)|
|Imports:||$6.543 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)|
|Imports - commodities:||machinery and equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles|
|Imports - partners:||US 13.7%, Germany 12.2%, Sweden 10.2%, Denmark 7.5%, Netherlands 5.7%, UK 5.4%, China 5.1%, Norway 4.6% (2007)|
|Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:||$2.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)|
|Debt - external:||$3.073 billion (2002)|
|Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:||$NA|
|Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:||$NA|
|Currency (code):||Icelandic krona (ISK)|
|Exchange rates:||Icelandic kronur (ISK) per US dollar - 85.619 (2008 est.), 63.391 (2007), 70.195 (2006), 62.982 (2005), 70.192 (2004)|
|Telephones - main lines in use:||186,700 (2007)|
|Telephones - mobile cellular:||347,500 (2007)|
|Telephone system:||general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, with satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network |
domestic: liberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning in the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially in the mobile services segment of the market
international: country code - 354; the CANTAT-3 and FARICE-1 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Canada, the Faroe Islands, UK, Denmark, and Germany; a planned new section of the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable will provide additional connectivity to Canada, US, and Ireland; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)
|Radio broadcast stations:||AM 3, FM about 70, shortwave 1 (2008)|
|Television broadcast stations:||14 (plus 156 repeaters) (1997)|
|Internet country code:||.is|
|Internet hosts:||263,980 (2008)|
|Internet Service Providers (ISPs):||20 (2001)|
|Internet users:||202,300 (2007)|
|Airports - with paved runways:||total: 6 |
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2008)
|Airports - with unpaved runways:||total: 93 |
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 63 (2008)
|Roadways:||total: 13,058 km |
paved/oiled gravel: 4,397 km (does not include urban roads)
unpaved: 8,661 km (2007)
|Merchant marine:||total: 2 |
by type: passenger/cargo 2
registered in other countries: 37 (Antigua and Barbuda 12, Bahamas 1, Belize 2, Denmark 2, Faroe Islands 1, Gibraltar 1, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 3, Norway 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7) (2008)
|Ports and terminals:||Grundartangi, Hafnarfjordur, Reykjavik|
|Military branches:||no regular military forces; Icelandic National Police (2008)|
|Manpower available for military service:||males age 16-49: 74,896 (2008 est.)|
|Manpower fit for military service:||males age 16-49: 62,576 |
females age 16-49: 61,159 (2009 est.)
|Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:||male: 2,369 |
female: 2,349 (2009 est.)
|Military expenditures:||0% of GDP (2005 est.)|
|Military - note:||Iceland has no standing military force; under a 1951 bilateral agreement - still valid - its defense was provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik; however, all US military forces in Iceland were withdrawn as of October 2006; although wartime defense of Iceland remains a NATO commitment, in April 2007, Iceland and Norway signed a bilateral agreement providing for Norwegian aerial surveillance and defense of Icelandic airspace (2008)|
|Disputes - international:||Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm|
The history of Iceland began around 870 C.E. when Norse settlers arrived from the west coast of Norway, as well as those who had previously settled in Ireland and Great Britain. Some Icelanders would explore eventually the land that came to be known as Greenland; but the majority of the people of Iceland formed a conservative rural society. They were farmers who created a highly-evolved social structure defined by their work with the land. The stories they told, well-known as the Islendinga sogur, or, Iceland sagas, reflected that down-to-earth daily life by which honor was to be measured.
Through the best-known literary character, Odin, Icelanders were not totally without fantasy, myth or fascination with the magical and mysterious. Robert Kellogg, in an introduction to the book, The Sagas of Icelanders, talked about the role Odin as he discussed Egil's Saga, a key story in Icelandic literature:
The patron of all poets was Odin, who was sometimes known as the one-eyed god…Odin gave away his eye in order to drink from the underworld well of the wise god Mimir and thus to acquire wisdom. Egils is not only the beneficiary of Odin's gifts of poetry and magic, but also to some small degree an embodiment of the god.
Iceland has been a Christian country since 1000 C.E., following its ancestral religious roots of Asatru. (An interesting note is that the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, known best for the Lord of the Rings, emerged from the Codex Regis, the ancient "sacred" manuscript of this pre-Christian belief. While Iceland's citizens currently enjoy the Constitutional benefit of freedom of religion, nearly 95 percent of them are Lutherans, the state-affiliated church. At the end of the twentieth century Iceland's population at 240,000 was about the same size as Cumberland County, Maine, the largest in that state. With the entire country's population occupying only about one-fifth of the land, Iceland is about the size of a medium American city. The people, too, are an interestingly homogenous group. Unlike Americans, all natives have descended from only two groups-the original Nordic and Celtic people who settled there. (Consequently, the population has been the subject of scientific research crucial to the study health and disease throughout the years.) This fact also emphasizes that while statistics might indicate only a small portion of the population engaged in the area of psychical research, or phenomena, it reflects a percentage that in fact might be no lower than many other countries.
Icelandic interest in psychical research goes back many years to the founding of Salarrannsoknafelag Island, the Society for Psychical Research of Iceland in Reykjavik in 1918. The founder was Prof. Einar Hjöleifsson Kvaran (1859-1938), a well-known writer who edited Morgunn, a Spiritualist magazine. A prominent member was Prof. Harald Nielsson (d. 1928) of the University of Reykjavik, who spent five years investigating the phenomena of the medium Indridi Indridason.
Indridi Indridason (1883-1912) was a physical medium, long unknown outside of Iceland. He is believed to be the first Icelander who demonstrated such gifts. When he first demonstrated them in 1905 at a "table-tilting" being held by academic researchers, and reportedly lasted until 1909. The group of investigators were those that later formed the Icelandic Society for Psychical Research. One of Indridason's most chilling communications was the story of a fire in Copenhagen on November 24, 1905. It was not confirmed until a month later when news came by boat from Denmark—the only means the story had of transmittal in those early days of the twentieth century. Other phenomena including materialization s became commonplace during the seances Indridason served.
A prominent Icelandic psychologist and parapsychologist, Erlendur Haraldsson is known worldwide for his work investigations of ESP, and experiences of death. One of his most famous works was, Modern Miracles, based on the life of Indian religious leader, Sathya Sai Baba, known for the miracles that he performed. He serves on the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik. In a 1988-989 survey he conducted entitled, "Survey of Claimed Encounters with the Dead," Haraldsson discovered that 31 percent of Icelanders, "…perceived the presence of a dead person." His work continues while he remains a faculty member in social sciences and is perhaps reflective of a few aspects of human daily life that fit into the context their own history and sociology.
Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991.
Iceland. http://www.iceland.org/. June 6, 2000.
Noah's Ark Society (Great Britain). The Mediumship of Indridi Indridason.http://www.noahsark.clara.net/ind1.htm. June 6, 2000.
Thorsson, Ornolfur, ed. The Sagas of Icelanders. New York: Viking (Penguin), 1997.
The currency abbreviation or the currency symbol for the Iceland Krona (ISK), the currency of Iceland. The krona is divided into 100 aurar and is often presented with the symbol kr. This currency has earned the nickname "Icelandic Crown" in the financial markets because of the word krona's relation to the latin word corona, meaning crown.
The krona was first seen in 1922 in coin form, followed by notes in 1929. The currency was revaluated in 1981, and only whole kronur have been used since 2002. Currency trading was suspended during the Icelandic banking collapse in 2008.
Take advantage of foreign currency markets without stepping out of your house. The New World Of Emerging Market Currencies
Find out what can cause a currency to collapse and what central banks can do to help. What Causes A Currency Crisis?
These speculators took big positions - and scored huge profits - in the currency market. The Greatest Currency Trades Ever Made
In this online tutorial, beginners and experts alike can learn the ins and outs of the retail forex market. Forex Tutorial: Introduction to Currency Trading
In this online tutorial, beginners and experts alike can learn the ins and outs of the retail forex market. Forex Tutorial: Reading a Forex Quote and Understanding the Jargon
In this online tutorial, beginners and experts alike can learn the ins and outs of the retail forex market. Forex Tutorial: Forex History and Market Participants
In this online tutorial, beginners and experts alike can learn the ins and outs of the retail forex market. Forex Tutorial: How To Trade & Open A Forex Account
categories related to 'Iceland'
- Nations of the World - Iceland: Republic of; group of islands in N Atlantic; capital Reykjavik; area 39,768 sq. mi., pop. 251,000; Icelandic; Lutheran; krona
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2012)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|-||President||Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson|
|-||Prime Minister||Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir|
|-||Speaker of the Althing||Ásta Ragnheiður Jóhannesdóttir|
|-||Union with Norway||1262–1814|
|-||Constitution||5 January 1874|
|-||Kingdom of Iceland||1 December 1918|
|-||Republic||17 June 1944|
|-||Total||103,001 km2 (108th)
39,770 sq mi
|-||12 February 2013 estimate||321,857[a] (175th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
low · 1st
very high · 14th
|Currency||Icelandic króna (
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||IS|
|a.||^ "Statistics Iceland:Key figures". Statistics Iceland. 1 October 2002. http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1390. Retrieved 2011-07-02.|
|b.||^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html#Govt. Retrieved 14 September 2008.|
Iceland i// (Icelandic: Ísland, IPA: [ˈislant]) is a Nordic European island country situated at the confluence of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The country has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), which makes it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with the surrounding areas in the southwestern region of the country being home to two-thirds of the country's population. The nation's capital is the most northern capital in the world. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists mainly of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle.
According to Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in AD 874 when the chieftain Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent Norse settler on the island. Others had visited the island earlier and stayed over winter. Over the following centuries, Norsemen settled Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin. From 1262 to 1918, Iceland was part of the Norwegian and later the Danish monarchies. The country became independent in 1918 and a republic was declared in 1944. Until the 20th century, the Icelandic population relied largely on fishing and agriculture, and the country was one of the poorest and least developed in the world. Industrialisation of the fisheries and aid from the Marshall Plan brought prosperity in the years after World War II, and by the 1990s, Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. In 1994, Iceland became party to the European Economic Area, which made it possible for the economy to diversify into economic and financial services.
Iceland has a free-market economy with relatively low corporate taxes compared to other OECD countries, while maintaining a Nordic welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. In 2011, it was ranked as the 14th most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, and the fourth most productive country per capita. In 2008, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed, resulting in substantial political unrest. Iceland ranks high in economic and political stability, though it is still in the process of recovering from the crisis. Gender equality is highly valued in Iceland. In the Global Gender Gap Report 2012, Iceland holds the top spot, closely followed by Finland, Norway and Sweden.
Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Norse heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old Norse and is closely related to Faroese and some West Norwegian dialects. The country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, poetry, and the medieval Icelanders' sagas. Among NATO members, Iceland has the smallest population and is the only one with no standing army.
Settlement and Commonwealth 874–1262
According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, Celtic monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before the Norse settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula, and carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned somewhere between 770 and 880, suggesting that Iceland was populated well before 874. This archaeological find may also indicate that the monks left Iceland before the Norse arrived.
The first known permanent Norse settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, who built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in the year 874. Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Norsemen and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land had been claimed and the Althing, a legislative and judiciary parliament, was initiated to regulate the Icelandic Commonwealth. Christianity was adopted around 999–1000, although Norse paganism persisted among some segments of the population for several years.
The Commonwealth lasted until the 13th century, when the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains.
During these early Celtic and Viking settlements, the climate was significantly warmer and about 25% of Iceland was covered with forest compared to 1% now.
The Middle Ages
The internal struggles and civil strife of the Sturlung Era led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, which ended the Commonwealth and brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown. Possession of Iceland passed to Kalmar Union in 1415, when the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark and Sweden were united. After the break-up of the union in 1523, it technically remained a Norwegian dependency, as a part of Denmark-Norway.
In the ensuing centuries, Iceland became one of the poorest countries in Europe. Infertile soil, volcanic eruptions, deforestation and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society where subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture. The Black Death swept Iceland twice, first in 1402–04 and again in 1494–95. The former outbreak killed 50% to 60% of the population, and the latter 30% to 50%.
Reformation and the Early Modern period
Around the middle of the 16th century, King Christian III of Denmark began to impose Lutheranism on all his subjects. Jón Arason, the last Catholic bishop of Hólar, was beheaded in 1550 along with two of his sons. The country subsequently became fully Lutheran. Lutheranism has since remained the dominant religion. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland, while pirates from several countries raided its coasts. A great smallpox epidemic in the 18th century killed around a third of the population. In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted, with devastating effects. The years following the eruption, known as the Mist Hardships (Icelandic: Móðuharðindin), saw the death of over half of all livestock in the country, with ensuing famine in which around a quarter of the population died.
Independence movement 1814–1918
In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel. Iceland, however, remained a Danish dependency. Throughout the 19th century, the country's climate continued to worsen, resulting in mass emigration to the New World, particularly Manitoba in Canada. About 15,000 people out of a total population of 70,000 left.
However, a new national consciousness had arisen, inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe. An Icelandic independence movement took shape in the 1850s under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson, riding on the burgeoning Icelandic nationalism inspired by the Fjölnismenn and other Danish-educated Icelandic intellectuals. In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule, which was expanded in 1904, with Hannes Hafstein serving as the first Minister for Iceland in the Danish cabinet.
Kingdom of Iceland 1918–1944
The Danish-Icelandic Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918 and valid for 25 years, recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state in a personal union with Denmark. The Government of Iceland established an embassy in Copenhagen and requested that Denmark should handle Icelandic foreign policy; Danish embassies around the world would display two coats of arms and two flags: those of the Kingdom of Denmark and those of the Kingdom of Iceland.
During World War II, Iceland joined Denmark in asserting neutrality. After the German occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940, the Althing replaced the King with a regent and declared that the Icelandic government should assume the control of foreign affairs and other matters previously handled by Denmark. A month later, British armed forces invaded and occupied the country, violating Icelandic neutrality. In 1941, the occupation of Iceland was taken over by the United States so that Britain could use its troops elsewhere, an arrangement reluctantly agreed to by the Icelandic authorities.
Independent republic 1944–present
On 31 December 1943, the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with Denmark, abolish the monarchy, and establish a republic. The vote was 97% in favour of ending the union and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as its first president.
In 1946, the Allied occupation force left Iceland, which formally became a member of NATO on 30 March 1949, amid domestic controversy and riots. On 5 May 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States. American troops returned to Iceland, as the Iceland Defence Force, and remained throughout the Cold War; the US withdrew the last of its forces on 30 September 2006.
Iceland had prospered during the war, and the immediate post-war period was followed by substantial economic growth, driven by industrialisation of the fishing industry and the Marshall Plan programme, through which Icelanders received by far the most aid per capita of any European country (at USD 209, with the war-ravaged Netherlands a distant second at USD 109). The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars — several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland's extension of its fishing limits. The economy was greatly diversified and liberalised when Iceland joined the European Economic Area in 1994.
Iceland hosted a summit in Reykjavik in 1986 between United States President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev, during which they took significant steps toward nuclear disarmament. Only a few years later, Iceland would become the first country to recognize the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania as they broke away from the USSR. Throughout the 1990s, the country expanded its international role and developed a foreign policy that was oriented toward humanitarian and peacekeeping causes. To that end, Iceland provided aid and expertise to various NATO-led interventions in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Iraq.
Rise and fall of Iceland as a financial centre
In the years 2003–2007, following the privatization of the banking sector under the government of Davíð Oddsson, Iceland moved from being a nation best known for its fishing industry toward having an economy based on financial services and investment banking. It was quickly becoming one of the most prosperous countries in the world before getting hit hard by a major financial crisis. The crisis resulted in the greatest migration from Iceland since 1887, with a net emigration of 5,000 people in 2009. Iceland's economy has since stabilized under the government of Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, and is expected to grow by 2.8% in 2012.
Iceland is located at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. The main island is entirely south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the small Icelandic island of Grímsey off the main island's northern coast. The country lies between latitudes 63° and 67° N, and longitudes 25° and 13° W.
Although Iceland is closest to Greenland (North America), it is closer to continental Europe than to mainland North America; thus, the island is generally included in Europe for historical, political, cultural, and practical reasons. Geologically the island includes parts of both continental plates. The closest body of land is Greenland (290 km (180 mi)). The closest bodies of land in Europe are the Faroe Islands (420 km (260 mi)); Jan Mayen Island (570 km (350 mi)); Shetland and the Outer Hebrides, both about 740 km (460 mi); and the Scottish mainland and Orkney, both about 750 km (470 mi). The mainland of Norway is about 970 km (600 mi) away.
Iceland is the world's 18th largest island, and Europe's second largest island after Great Britain. The main island is 101,826 km2 (39,315 sq mi), but the entire country is 103,000 km2 (39,768.5 sq mi) in size, of which 62.7% is tundra. There are thirty minor islands in Iceland, including the lightly populated Grímsey and the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago. Lakes and glaciers cover 14.3% of its surface; only 23% is vegetated. The largest lakes are Þórisvatn (Reservoir): 83–88 km2 (32.0–34.0 sq mi) and Þingvallavatn: 82 km2 (31.7 sq mi); other important lakes include Lagarfljót and Mývatn. Jökulsárlón is the deepest lake, at 248 m (814 ft).
Geologically, Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms new oceanic crust. This part of the mid-ocean ridge is located above a mantle plume, causing Iceland to be subaerial (above the surface of the sea). The ridge marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American Plates, and Iceland was created by rifting and accretion through volcanism along the ridge.
Many fjords punctuate Iceland's 4,970 km long coastline, which is also where most settlements are situated. The island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland, is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand, mountains and lava fields. The major towns are the capital city of Reykjavík, along with its outlying towns of Kópavogur, Hafnarfjörður and Garðabær, nearby Reykjanesbær where the international airport is located, and the town of Akureyri in northern Iceland. The island of Grímsey on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland. Iceland has three national parks: Vatnajökull National Park, Snæfellsjökull National Park, and Þingvellir National Park. The country is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection, having been ranked 13th in Yale University's Environmental Performance Index of 2012.
A geologically young land, Iceland is located on both the Iceland hotspot and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which runs right through it. This location means that the island is highly geologically active with many volcanoes, notably Hekla, Eldgjá, Herðubreið and Eldfell. The volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783–1784 caused a famine that killed nearly a quarter of the island's population; the eruption caused dust clouds and haze to appear over most of Europe and parts of Asia and Africa for several months afterward.
Iceland has many geysers, including Geysir, from which the English word is derived, and the famous Strokkur, which erupts every 5–10 minutes. After a phase of inactivity, Geysir started erupting again after a series of earthquakes in 2000. Geysir has since then grown quieter and does not erupt often.
With the widespread availability of geothermal power, and the harnessing of many rivers and waterfalls for hydroelectricity, most residents have access to inexpensive hot water, heating and electricity. The island itself is composed primarily of basalt, a low-silica lava associated with effusive volcanism as has occurred also in Hawaii. Iceland, however, has a variety of volcanic types (composite and fissure), many producing more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite. Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes within approx. 30 volcanic systems active.
Surtsey, one of the youngest islands in the world, is part of Iceland. Named after Surtr, it rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between 8 November 1963 and 5 June 1968. Only scientists researching the growth of new life are allowed to visit the island.
On 21 March 2010, a volcano in Eyjafjallajökull in the south of Iceland erupted for the first time since 1821, forcing 600 people to flee their homes. Further eruptions on 14 April forced hundreds of people to abandon their homes. The resultant cloud of volcanic ash brought major disruption to air travel across Europe.
Another large eruption occurred on 21 May 2011. This time it was the Grímsvötn volcano, located under the thick ice of Europe's largest glacier, Vatnajökull. Grímsvötn is one of Iceland's most active volcanoes and this eruption was much more powerful than the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull activity. The eruption hurled ash and lava 20 km (12.43 mi) up into the atmosphere, creating a large cloud that for a while was thought to pose a danger to jet aircraft over a wide area of northern Europe.
The climate of Iceland's coast is subpolar oceanic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world. Regions in the world with similar climate include the Aleutian Islands, the Alaska Peninsula, and Tierra del Fuego, although these regions are closer to the equator. Despite its proximity to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter. Ice incursions are rare, the last having occurred on the north coast in 1969.
There are some variations in the climate between different parts of the island. Generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter and windier than the north. The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country. Low-lying inland areas in the north are the most arid. Snowfall in winter is more common in the north than the south.
The highest air temperature recorded was 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) on 22 June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the southeastern coast. The lowest was −38 °C (−36.4 °F) on 22 January 1918 at Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur in the northeastern hinterland. The temperature records for Reykjavík are 26.2 °C (79.2 °F) on 30 July 2008, and −24.5 °C (−12.1 °F) on 21 January 1918.
|Climate data for Reykjavík, Iceland (1961–1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−3
|Source #1: Icelandic Meteorological Office|
|Source #2: Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart|
|Climate data for Akureyri, Iceland (1961–1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||0.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5
|Source #1: Icelandic Meteorological Office|
|Source #2: Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart|
There are around 1,300 known species of insects in Iceland, which is a rather low number compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the Arctic Fox, which came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the frozen sea. On rare occasions, bats have been carried to the island with the winds, but they are not able to breed there. Polar bears occasionally come over from Greenland, but they are just visitors, and no Icelandic populations exist. There are no native or free-living reptiles or amphibians on the island.
Phytogeographically, Iceland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Approximately three quarters of the island are barren of vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Iceland is the Northern Birch (Betula pubescens), which formerly formed forest over much of Iceland along with Aspen (Populus tremula), Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Common Juniper (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees.
When the island was first settled, it was extensively forested. In the late 12th-century Íslendingabók, Ari the Wise described it as "forested from mountain to sea shore". Permanent human settlement greatly disturbed the isolated ecosystem of thin, volcanic soils and limited species diversity. The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Deforestation, climatic deterioration during the Little Ice Age and overgrazing by sheep caused a loss of critical topsoil due to erosion. Today, many farms have been abandoned and three-quarters of Iceland's hundred thousand square kilometres are affected by soil erosion, eighteen thousand square kilometres so seriously as to be useless. Only a few small birch stands now exist in isolated reserves. The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees, but does not compare to the original forests. Some of the planted forests include introduced species.
The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep, cattle, chicken, goat, the sturdy Icelandic horse, and the Icelandic Sheepdog. Many varieties of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Iceland's economy, accounting for approximately half of the country's total exports. Wild mammals include the Arctic Fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits and reindeer. Polar bears occasionally visit the island, travelling on icebergs from Greenland. In June 2008, two polar bears arrived in the same month. Birds, especially seabirds, are a very important part of Iceland's animal life. Puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes nest on its sea cliffs.
Commercial whaling is practised intermittently along with scientific whale hunts. Whale watching has become an important part of Iceland's economy since 1997. In early 2010, Iceland's proposed quota in killing fin whales was much larger than the amount of whale meat the Japanese market could absorb. In negotiations with Marc Wall, Economic Minister-Counselor at the US embassy in Tokyo, Jun Yamashita of the Japanese Fisheries Agencies, however, rejected a proposal to suggest to Iceland to reduce the number of killed fin whales to a more reasonable number.
Iceland has a left–right multi-party system. The biggest parties are the centre-left Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin), the centre-right Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) and the Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð). Other political parties with seats in the Althing are the centrist Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn) and The Movement (Hreyfingin). Many other parties exist on the municipal level, most of which run only locally in a single municipality.
Iceland was the first country in the world to have a political party formed and led entirely by women. Known as the Women's List or Women's Alliance (Kvennalistinn), it was founded in 1983 to advance the political, economic, and social needs of women. After participating in its first parliamentary elections, the Women's List helped increase the proportion of female parliamentarians by 15%. Although it disbanded in 1999, merging with the Social Democratic Alliance, it left a lasting influence on Iceland's politics: every major party has a 40% quota for women, and nearly a third of the current members of parliament (as of 2009) is female, compared to a global average of 16%.
As of 2011, Iceland was ranked 2nd in the strength of its democratic institutions and 13th in government transparency. The country has a high level of civic participation, with 84% voter turnout during the most recent elections, compared to an OECD average of 72%. However, only 50% of Icelanders say they trust their political institutions, slightly less than the OECD average of 56% (and most probably a consequence of the political scandals in the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis).
Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic. The modern parliament, Alþingi (English: Althing), was founded in 1845 as an advisory body to the Danish monarch. It was widely seen as a re-establishment of the assembly founded in 930 in the Commonwealth period and suspended in 1799. Consequently, "it is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy." It currently has 63 members, elected for a maximum period of four years. The president is elected by popular vote for a term of four years, with no term limit. The elections for president, the Althing and local municipal councils are all held separately every four years.
The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial head of state and serves as a diplomat, but can veto laws voted by the parliament and put them to a national referendum. The current president is Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson. The head of government is the prime minister (currently Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir) who, together with the cabinet, is responsible for executive government. The cabinet is appointed by the president after a general election to the Althing; however, the appointment is usually negotiated by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how its seats are to be distributed, under the condition that it has a majority support in the Althing. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves within a reasonable time span does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet personally. This has not happened since the republic was founded in 1944, but in 1942 regent Sveinn Björnsson, who had been installed in that position by the Althing in 1941, appointed a non-parliamentary government. The regent had, for all practical purposes, the position of a president, and Sveinn would later become the country's first president in 1944.
The governments of Iceland have always been coalition governments, with two or more parties involved, as no single political party has ever received a majority of seats in the Althing throughout the republican period. The extent of the political power possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars in Iceland; several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers, but other provisions and traditions suggest differently. In 1980, Icelanders elected Vigdís Finnbogadóttir as president, the world's first directly elected female head of state. She retired from office in 1996. In 2009, Iceland became the first country with an openly gay head of government when Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir became prime minister.
Iceland is divided into regions, constituencies, counties, and municipalities. There are eight regions which are primarily used for statistical purposes; the district court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division. Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliamentary elections were the same as the regions, but by an amendment to the constitution, they were changed to the current six constituencies:
The redistricting change was made in order to balance the weight of different districts of the country, since previously a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area. The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system, but still exists.
Iceland's 23 counties are, for the most part, historical divisions. Currently, Iceland is split up among 26 magistrates (sýslumenn, singular sýslumaður) who represent government in various capacities. Among their duties are tax collection, administering bankruptcy declarations, and performing civil marriages. After a police reorganisation in 2007, which combined police forces in multiple counties, about half of them are in charge of police forces.
There are 75 municipalities in Iceland which govern local matters like schools, transport and zoning. These are the actual second-level subdivisions of Iceland, as the constituencies have no relevance except in elections and for statistical purposes. Reykjavík is by far the most populous municipality, about four times more populous than Kópavogur, the second one.
Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with the Nordic countries, Germany, the US, Canada, and the other NATO nations are particularly close. Historically, due to cultural, economic and linguistic similarities, Iceland is a Nordic country, and it participates in intergovernmental co-operation through the Nordic Council.
Iceland is a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), which allows the country access to the single market of the European Union (EU). It is not a member of EU, but in July 2009 the Icelandic parliament, the Althing, voted in favour of application for EU membership and officially applied on 17 July 2009. Iceland is also a member of the UN, NATO, EFTA and OECD.
Iceland has no standing army. The U.S. Air Force maintained four to six interceptor aircraft at the Keflavík base, until they were withdrawn on 30 September 2006. Since May 2008, NATO nations have periodically deployed fighters to patrol Icelandic airspace under the Icelandic Air Policing mission. Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite much domestic controversy, deploying a Coast Guard EOD team to Iraq which was replaced later by members of the Iceland Crisis Response Unit. Iceland has also participated in the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. Despite the ongoing financial crisis the first new patrol ship in decades was launched on 29 April 2009.
Icelanders remain especially proud of their role in hosting the historic 1986 Reagan–Gorbachev summit in Reykjavík, which set the stage for the end of the Cold War. Iceland's principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights. Conflict with the United Kingdom led to a series of so-called Cod Wars in 1952–1956 due to the extension of Iceland's fishing zone from 3 to 4 nmi (5.6 to 7.4 km; 3.5 to 4.6 mi), 1958–61 following a further extension to 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi), 1972–73 with another extension to 50 nmi (92.6 km; 57.5 mi); and in 1975–76 another extension to 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi).
In 2007, Iceland was the seventh most productive country in the world per capita (US$54,858), and the fifth most productive by GDP at purchasing power parity ($40,112). Except for its abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power, Iceland lacks natural resources; historically its economy depended heavily on fishing, which still provides 40% of export earnings and employs 7% of the work force. The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks and drops in world prices for its main material exports: fish and fish products, aluminium, and ferrosilicon. Whaling in Iceland has been historically significant. Iceland still relies heavily on fishing, but its importance is diminishing from an export share of 90% in the 1960s to 40% in 2006.
Until the 20th century, Iceland was among the poorest countries in Western Europe. Currently, it remains one of the most developed countries in the world. Strong economic growth had led Iceland to be ranked first in the United Nations' Human Development Index report for 2007/2008, although as of 2011 its HDI rating had fallen to 14th place as a result of the economic crisis. Nevertheless, according to the Economist Intelligence Index of 2011, Iceland has the 2nd highest quality of life in the world. Based on the Gini coefficient, Iceland also has one of the lowest rates of income inequality in the world, and when adjusted for inequality, its HDI ranking climbs to 5th place. Iceland's unemployment rate has declined consistently since the crisis, with 4.8% of the labour force being unemployed as of June 2012, compared to 6% in 2011 and 8.1% in 2010.
Many political parties remain opposed to EU membership, primarily due to Icelanders' concern about losing control over their natural resources (particularly fisheries). The national currency of Iceland is the Icelandic króna (ISK). A poll released on 5 March 2010 by Capacent Gallup showed that 31% of respondents were in favour of adopting the euro and 69% opposed. Another Capacent Gallup poll conducted in February 2012 found that 67.4% of Icelanders would reject EU membership in a referendum.
Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, including software production, biotechnology, and finance; industry accounts for around a quarter of economic activity, while services comprise close to 70%. Despite the decision to resume commercial whale hunting in 2006, the tourism sector is expanding, especially in ecotourism and whale-watching. On average, Iceland receives around 1.1 million visitors annually, which is more than three times the native population. Iceland's agriculture industry, accounting for 5.4% of GDP, consists mainly of potatoes, green vegetables (in greenhouses), mutton and dairy products. The financial centre is Borgartún in Reykjavík, which hosts a large number of companies and three investment banks. Iceland's stock market, the Iceland Stock Exchange (ISE), was established in 1985.
Iceland is ranked 27th in the 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, lower than in prior years but still among the freest in the world. As of 2012, it ranks 30th in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitive Index, one place higher than in 2011. According to INSEAD's Global Innovation Index, Iceland is the 11th most innovative country in the world. Unlike most Western European countries, Iceland has a flat tax system: the main personal income tax rate is a flat 22.75%, and combined with municipal taxes, the total tax rate equals no more than 35.72%, not including the many deductions that are available. The corporate tax rate is a flat 18%, one of the lowest in the world. There is also a value added tax, whereas a net wealth tax was eliminated in 2006. Employment regulations are relatively flexible and the labour market is one of the freest in the world. Property rights are strong and Iceland is one of the few countries where they are applied to fishery management. Like other welfare states, taxpayers pay various subsidies to each other, but with spending being less than in most European countries.
Despite low tax rates, agricultural assistance is the highest among OECD countries and a potential impediment to structural change. Also, health care and education spending have relatively poor returns by OECD measures, though improvements have been made in both areas. The OECD Economic Survey of Iceland 2008 had highlighted Iceland's challenges in currency and macroeconomic policy. There was a currency crisis that started in the spring of 2008, and on 6 October trading in Iceland's banks was suspended as the government battled to save the economy. The latest assessment by the OECD determined that Iceland has made progress in many areas, particularly in creating a sustainable fiscal policy and restoring the health of the financial sector; however, challenges remain in making the fishing industry more efficient and sustainable, as well as in improving monetary policy in order to address inflation. Iceland's public debt remains around 120% as of 2012, the 10th highest in the world by proportion of national GDP.
Iceland has been hit especially hard by the ongoing late-2000s recession, because of the failure of its banking system and a subsequent economic crisis. Before the crash of the country's three largest banks, Glitnir, Landsbanki and Kaupthing, their combined debt exceeded approximately six times the nation's gross domestic product of €14 billion ($19 billion). In October 2008, the Icelandic parliament passed emergency legislation to minimise the impact of the financial crisis. The Financial Supervisory Authority of Iceland used permission granted by the emergency legislation to take over the domestic operations of the three largest banks. Icelandic officials, including central bank governor Davíð Oddsson, stated that the state did not intend to take over any of the banks' foreign debts or assets. Instead, new banks were established around the domestic operations of the banks, and the old banks will be run into bankruptcy.
On 28 October 2008, the Icelandic government raised interest rates to 18%, (as of August 2010, it was 7%) a move which was forced in part by the terms of acquiring a loan from the IMF. After the rate hike, trading on the Icelandic króna finally resumed on the open market, with valuation at around 250 ISK per Euro, less than one-third the value of the 1:70 exchange rate during most of 2008, and a significant drop from the 1:150 exchange ratio of the week before. Iceland appealed to the Nordic countries for an additional €4 billion in aid to avert the crisis.
On 26 January 2009, the coalition government collapsed due to the public dissent over the handling of the financial crisis. A new left-wing government was formed a week later and immediately set about removing Central Bank governor Davíð Oddsson and his aides from the bank through changes in law. Davíð was removed on 26 February 2009 in the wake of protests outside the Central Bank.
Thousands of Icelanders have moved from the country after the collapse, and many of those moved to Norway. In 2005, 293 people moved from Iceland to Norway; in 2009, the figure was 1,625. In April 2010, the Icelandic Parliament‘s Special Investigation Commission published the findings of its investigation, revealing the extent of control fraud in this crisis. By June 2012, Landsbanki managed to repay about half of the Icesave debt.
Iceland has a high level of car ownership per capita; with a car for every 1.5 inhabitants, it is the main form of transportation. Many of these can be found abandoned in rural areas. Iceland has 13,034 km (8,099 mi) of administered roads, of which 4,617 km (2,869 mi) are paved and 8,338 km (5,181 mi) are not. A great number of roads remain unpaved, mostly little-used rural roads. The road speed limits are 50 km/h (31 mph) in towns, 80 km/h (50 mph) on gravel country roads and 90 km/h (56 mph) on hard-surfaced roads. Iceland currently has no railways.
Route 1, or the Ring Road (Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur), was completed in 1974, and is a main road that runs around Iceland and connects all the inhabited parts of the island, with the interior of the island being uninhabited. This paved road is 1,337 km (831 mi) long with one lane in each direction, except near larger towns and cities and in the Hvalfjörður Tunnel (also the site of a toll) where it has more lanes. Many bridges on it, especially in the north and east, are single lane and made of timber and/or steel.
The main hub for international transport is Keflavík International Airport, which serves Reykjavík and the country in general. It is 48 km (30 mi) to the west of Reykjavík. Domestic flights, flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands, and business flights operate mostly out of Reykjavík Airport, which lies in the city centre. Most general aviation traffic is also in Reykjavík. There are 103 registered airports and airfields in Iceland; most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas. The biggest airport in Iceland is Keflavík International Airport and the biggest airfield is Geitamelur, a four-runway field around 100 km (62 mi) east of Reykjavík, dedicated exclusively to gliding. There are a number of international airlines that fly to and from Iceland regularly.
Renewable sources—geothermal and hydropower—provide effectively all of Iceland's electricity and around 80% of the nation's total energy, with most of the remainder consisting of imported oil used in transportation and in the fishing fleet. Iceland expects to be energy-independent by 2050. Iceland's largest geothermal power plants are Hellisheiði and Nesjavellir, while Kárahnjúkavirkjun is the country's largest hydroelectric power station.
Icelanders emit 6.29 tonnes of CO2 in 2009 equivalent of greenhouse gases per capita. Iceland is one of the few countries that have filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells. It is also one of a few countries currently capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at a reasonable cost, because of Iceland's plentiful renewable sources of energy.
On January 22, 2009, Iceland announced its first round of offshore licences for companies wanting to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and production in a region northeast of Iceland, known as the Dreki area.
As of 2012, the government of Iceland is in talks with the government of United Kingdom about the possibility of constructing a high-voltage direct-current connector for transmission of electricity between the two countries. Iceland has considerable renewable energy resources, especially geothermal energy and hydropower resources, and most of the potential has not been developed, partly because there is not demand for additional electricity generation capacity from the residents and industry of Iceland, but the United Kingdom is interested in importing inexpensive electricity from renewable sources of energy, and this could lead to further development of the energy resources.
Education and science
The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines. However, playschools, primary schools, and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities. The government does allow citizens to Home educate their children, however under a very strict set of demands. Students must stick to the government mandated curriculum, the parent teaching must acquire a government approved teaching certificate.
Nursery school, or leikskóli, is non-compulsory education for children younger than six years, and is the first step in the education system. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994. They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible.
Compulsory education, or grunnskóli, comprises primary and lower secondary education, which often is conducted at the same institution. Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 16 years. The school year lasts nine months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June. The minimum number of school days was once 170, but after a new teachers' wage contract, it increased to 180. Lessons take place five days a week. All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity, although an exemption may be considered by the Minister of Education.
Upper secondary education, or framhaldsskóli, follows lower secondary education. These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. Though not compulsory, everyone who has had a compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education. This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996. All schools in Iceland are mixed sex schools. The largest seat of higher education is the University of Iceland, which has its main campus in central Reykjavík. Other schools offering university-level instruction include Reykjavík University, University of Akureyri, Agricultural University of Iceland and Bifröst University.
An OECD assessment found 64% of Icelanders aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, which is lower than the OECD average of 73%. Among 25–34 year-olds, only 69% have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, significantly lower than the OECD average of 80%. Nevertheless, Iceland's education system is considered to be of excellent quality: the Programme for International Student Assessment currently ranks it as the 16th best performing, above the OECD average. Students were particularly proficient in reading and math.
According to a 2011 Eurostat report by the European Commission, Iceland spends around 2.75% of its GDP on scientific research and development (R&D), about 1 percentage point higher than the EU average, and the 4th highest of any European country. A 2010 UNESCO report found that out of 72 countries that spend the most on R&D (100 million US dollars or more), Iceland ranked 9th by proportion of GDP, tied with Taiwan, Switzerland, and Germany and ahead of France, the UK, and Canada. It is now one of the richest countries in the world.
The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Gaelic origin. This is evident from literary evidence dating from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analyses. One such genetics study has indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Gaelic origin.
Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 17th century and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement. The biopharmaceutical company deCODE genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database which attempts to cover all of Iceland's known inhabitants. It views the database, called Íslendingabók, as a valuable tool for conducting research on genetic diseases, given the relative isolation of Iceland's population.
The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40,000–60,000 in the period ranging from initial settlement until the mid-19th century. During that time, cold winters, ash fall from volcanic eruptions, and bubonic plagues adversely affected the population several times. According to Bryson (1974), there were 37 famine years in Iceland between 1500 and 1804. The first census was carried out in 1703 and revealed that the population was then 50,358. After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during 1783–84, the population reached a low of about 40,000. Improving living conditions have triggered a rapid increase in population since the mid-19th century—from about 60,000 in 1850 to 320,000 in 2008. Iceland has a relatively young population for a developed country, with one out of five people being 14 years-old or younger. With a fertility rate of 2.1, Iceland is one of only a few European countries with a birth rate sufficient for long-term population growth (see table on the left).
In December 2007, 33,678 people (13.5% of the total population) living in Iceland had been born abroad, including children of Icelandic parents living abroad. Around 19,000 people (6% of the population) held foreign citizenship. Polish people make up the largest minority group by a considerable margin (see table on the right for more details), and still form the bulk of the foreign workforce. About 8,000 Poles now live in Iceland, 1,500 of them in Reyðarfjörður where they make up 75% of the workforce who are constructing the Fjarðarál aluminium plant. The recent surge in immigration has been credited to a labour shortage due to the booming economy at the time, as well as to the lifting of restrictions on the movement of people from the countries that were a part of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union. Large-scale construction projects in the east of Iceland (see Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project) have also brought in many people whose stay is expected to be temporary. Many Polish immigrants were also considering leaving in 2008 as a result of the Icelandic financial crisis.
The southwest corner of Iceland is the most densely populated region. It is also the location of the capital Reykjavík, the northernmost national capital in the world. The largest towns outside the Greater Reykjavík area are Akureyri and Reykjanesbær, although the latter is relatively close to the capital.
Some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red colonized Greenland among the existing paleo-Eskimo inhabitants in the late 10th century. The total population reached a high point of perhaps 5,000 and developed independent institutions before disappearing by 1500. From Greenland the Norsemen launched expeditions to settle in Vinland, but these attempts to colonise North America were soon abandoned in the face of hostility from the indigenous peoples. Emigration to the United States and Canada began in the 1870s. Today, Canada has over 88,000 people of Icelandic descent, while there are more than 40,000 Americans of Icelandic descent, according to the 2000 US census.
Iceland's 10 most populous urban areas:
Largest cities or towns of Iceland
Data is from the population census of 1 October 2009.
Iceland's de facto official written and spoken language is Icelandic, a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse. In grammar and vocabulary, it has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages; Icelandic has preserved more verb and noun inflection, and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from other languages. The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning, in addition to centuries of isolation. Icelandic is the only living language to retain the use of the runic letter Þ in Latin script. The closest living relative of the Icelandic language is Faroese.
English and Danish are compulsory subjects in the school curriculum. Both languages are widely understood and spoken. Other commonly spoken languages are Faroese, German, Norwegian and Swedish. Danish is mostly spoken in a way largely comprehensible to Swedes and Norwegians—it is often referred to as skandinavíska (i. e. Scandinavian) in Iceland.
Rather than using family names, as is the custom in all mainland European nations, the Icelanders use patronymics or matronymics. The patronymic and matronymic follows the person's given name, e.g. Elísabet Jónsdóttir ("Elísabet, Jón's daughter") or Ólafur Katrínarson ("Ólafur, Katrín's son"). Consequently, Icelanders refer to one another by their given name, and the Icelandic telephone directory is listed alphabetically by first name rather than by surname.
Iceland has a universal health care system that is administered by The Ministry of Welfare (Icelandic: Velferðarráðuneytið) and paid for mostly by taxes (85%) and to a lesser extent by service fees (15%). Unlike most developed nations, there are no private hospitals, and private insurance is practically nonexistent.
A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care, and Iceland ranks 11th in health care expenditures as a percentage of GDP  and 14th in spending per capita. Over all, the country’s health care system is one of the best performing in the world, ranked 15th by the World Health Organization. According to an OECD report, Iceland devotes far more resources to healthcare than most industrialized nations. As of 2009, Iceland had 3.7 doctors per 1,000 people (compared with an average of 3.1 in OECD countries) and 15.3 nurses per 1,000 people (compared with an OECD average of 8.4).
Icelanders are among the world’s healthiest people, with 81% reporting to be in good health, according to an OECD survey. Although it is a growing problem, obesity is not as prevalent as in other developed countries, infant mortality is one the lowest in the world, and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the OECD average. The average life expectancy is 81.8 (compared to an OECD average of 79.5), the 4th highest in the world.
Additionally, Iceland has a very low level of pollution, thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner geothermal energy, a low population density, and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens. According to an OECD assessment, the amount of toxic material in the atmosphere is far lower than any other industrialized country measured.
Icelanders have freedom of religion under the constitution of Iceland, though the Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the state church. The Registers Iceland keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In 2012, Icelanders were divided into religious groups as follows:
- 76.81% members of the Church of Iceland.
- 11.07% members of some other Christian denomination.
- 5.84% members of unregistered religious organisations.
- 4.94% unaffiliated with religious organisations.
- 1.35% members of non-Christian denomination.
Iceland is a very secular country: as with other Nordic nations, religious attendance is relatively low. The above statistics represent administrative membership of religious organisations, which does not necessarily reflect the belief demographics of the population of Iceland. According to a study published in 2001, 23% of the inhabitants are either atheist or agnostic. A Gallup poll conducted in 2011 found that 60% of Icelanders considered religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, one of the highest rates of irreligion in the world.
Icelandic culture has its roots in Norse traditions. Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages. Centuries of isolation have helped to insulate the country's Nordic culture from external influence; a prominent example is the preservation of the Icelandic language, which remains the closest to Old Norse out of any other Scandinavian language except Faroese.
In contrast to other Nordic countries, Icelanders place relatively great importance on independence and self-sufficiency; in a public opinion analysis conducted by the European Commission, over 85% of Icelanders found independence to be "very important," compared to 47% of Norwegians, 49% of Danes, and an average of 53% for the EU25. Icelanders also have a very strong work ethic, working some of the longest hours of any industrialized nation.
According to a poll conducted by the OECD, 66% of Icelanders were satisfied with their lives, while 70% believed that their lives will be satisfying in the future. Similarly, 83% of people in Iceland reported having more positive experiences in an average day than negative ones, compared to an OECD average of 72%, which makes Iceland one of the happiest countries in the OECD. A more recent 2012 survey found that around three quarters of respondents stated they were satisfied with their lives, compared to a global average of about 53%.
Iceland is liberal with regard to gay rights issues. In 1996, the Icelandic parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, conferring nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage. In 2006, parliament voted unanimously to grant same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment. On 11 June 2010, the Icelandic parliament amended the marriage law, making it gender neutral and defining marriage as between two individuals, making Iceland one of the first countries in the world to legalise same-sex marriage. The law took effect on 27 June 2010. The amendment to the law also means registered partnerships for same-sex couples are now no longer possible, and marriage is their only option—identical to the existing situation for opposite-sex couples.
Icelanders are known for their deep sense of community: an OECD survey found that 98% believe they know someone they could rely on in a time of need, higher than in any other industrialized country. Similarly, only 6% reported "rarely" or "never" socializing with others. This high level of social cohesion is attributed to the small size and homogeneity of the population, as well as to a long history of harsh survival in an isolated environment, which reinforced the importance of unity and cooperation.
Egalitarianism is highly valued among the people of Iceland, with income inequality being among the lowest in the world. The constitution explicitly prohibits the enactment of noble privileges, titles, and ranks. Everyone is addressed by their first name. As with other Nordic countries, equality between the sexes is very high, Iceland is consistently ranked among the top three countries in the world for women to live in.
Iceland's best-known classical works of literature are the Icelanders' sagas, prose epics set in Iceland's age of settlement. The most famous of these include Njáls saga, about an epic blood feud, and Grænlendinga saga and Eiríks saga, describing the discovery and settlement of Greenland and Vinland (modern Newfoundland). Egils saga, Laxdæla saga, Grettis saga, Gísla saga and Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu are also notable and popular Icelanders' sagas.
A translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. Important compositions since the 15th to the 19th century include sacred verse, most famously the Passion Hymns of Hallgrímur Pétursson, and rímur, rhyming epic poems. Originating in the 14th century, rímur were popular into the 19th century, when the development of new literary forms was provoked by the influential, National-Romantic writer Jónas Hallgrímsson. In recent times, Iceland has produced many great writers, the best-known of whom is arguably Halldór Laxness, who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1955 (the only Icelander to win a Nobel Prize thus far). Steinn Steinarr was an influential modernist poet during the early 20th century who remains popular.
Icelanders are avid consumers of literature, with the highest number of bookstores per capita in the world. For its size, Iceland imports and translates more international literature than any other nation. Iceland also has the highest per capita publication of books and magazines, and around 10% of the population will publish a book in their lifetimes.
The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement for home rule and independence, which was very active in the mid-19th century.
Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of Þórarinn Þorláksson, who, following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen, returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924, almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape. Several other Icelandic men and women artists studied at Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts at that time, including Ásgrímur Jónsson, who together with Þórarinn created a distinctive portrayal of Iceland's landscape in a romantic naturalistic style. Other landscape artists quickly followed in the footsteps of Þórarinn and Ásgrímur. These included Jóhannes Kjarval and Júlíana Sveinsdóttir. Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment. Einar Hákonarson is an expressionistic and figurative painter who by some is considered to have brought the figure back into Icelandic painting. In the 1980s, many Icelandic artists worked with the subject of the new painting in their work.
In the recent years artistic practice has multiplied, and the Icelandic art scene has become a setting for many large scale projects and exhibitions. The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank, has been a significant part of the trend of self-organised spaces, exhibitions and projects. The Living Art Museum, Reykjavík Municipal Art Museum, Reykjavik Art Museum and the National Gallery of Iceland are the larger, more established institutions, curating shows and festivals.
Traditional Icelandic turf houses. Until the 20th century, the vast majority of Icelanders lived in rural areas.
Icelandic music is related to Nordic music, and includes vibrant folk and pop traditions, medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative and indie rock bands The Sugarcubes and Of Monsters and Men, jazz fusion band Mezzoforte, singers Björk and Emilíana Torrini, and post-rock band Sigur Rós. The national anthem of Iceland is Lofsöngur, written by Matthías Jochumsson, with music by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson.
Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious. Hymns, both religious and secular, are a particularly well-developed form of music, due to the scarcity of musical instruments throughout much of Iceland’s history. Hallgrímur Pétursson wrote many Protestant hymns in the 17th century. Icelandic music was modernised in the 19th century, when Magnús Stephensen brought pipe organs, which were followed by harmoniums. Other vital traditions of Icelandic music are epic alliterative and rhyming ballads called rímur. Rímur are epic tales, usually a cappella, which can be traced back to skaldic poetry, using complex metaphors and elaborate rhyme schemes. The best known rímur poet of the 19th century was Sigurður Breiðfjörð (1798–1846). A modern revitalisation of the tradition began in 1929 with the formation of Iðunn.[clarification needed]
Icelandic contemporary music consists of a big group of bands, ranging from pop-rock groups such as Bang Gang, Quarashi and Amiina to solo ballad singers like Bubbi Morthens, Megas and Björgvin Halldórsson. Independent music is very strong in Iceland, with bands such as múm, Sugarcubes, HAM, Of Monsters and Men, Sigur Rós (of which lead singer Jón Þór Birgisson also has prominent success with bands Jónsi and Jónsi & Alex), Viking metal band Skálmöld as well as solo artists Emilíana Torrini and Mugison.
Some Icelandic jazz musicians and jazz bands have earned a reputation outside Iceland. Perhaps best known is the jazz fusion band Mezzoforte and Los Angeles-based jazz vocalist Anna Mjöll. Many Icelandic artists and bands have enjoyed international success, most notably Björk and Sigur Rós but also Quarashi, Hera, Ampop, Mínus and múm. The main music festival is arguably Iceland Airwaves, an annual event on the Icelandic music scene, where Icelandic bands along with foreign ones play in the clubs of Reykjavík for a week. Electronic musicians include like Thor and GusGus.
Iceland's largest television stations are the state-run Sjónvarpið and the privately owned Stöð 2, SkjárEinn and ÍNN. Smaller stations exist, many of them local. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior. The main radio stations are Rás 1, Rás 2, X-ID977 and Bylgjan. The daily newspapers are Morgunblaðið and Fréttablaðið. The most popular websites are the news sites Vísir and Mbl.is.
Iceland is home to LazyTown (Icelandic: Latibær), a children's television programme created by Magnús Scheving. It has become a very popular programme for children and adults and is shown in over 100 countries, including the UK, the Americas and Sweden. The LazyTown studios are located in Garðabær.
In 1992 the Icelandic film industry achieved its greatest recognition hitherto, when Friðrik Þór Friðriksson was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film for his film, Children of Nature. Actress Guðrún S. Gísladóttir, who is Icelandic, played one of the major roles in fabled Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky's 1986 film, The Sacrifice. Anita Briem, known for her performance in Showtime's The Tudors, is also Icelandic. Briem starred in the 2008 film Journey to the Center of the Earth, which shot scenes in Iceland. The 2002 James Bond movie Die Another Day is set for a large-part in Iceland.
On 17 June 2010, the parliament passed the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative, a resolution proposing greater protection of free speech rights and the identity of journalists and whistle-blowers, the strongest journalist protection law in the world. According to a 2011 report by Freedom House, Iceland is one of the highest ranked countries in press freedom.
CCP Games, developers of the critically acclaimed EVE Online and Dust 514, is headquartered in Reykjavik. CCP Games hosts the third most populated MMO in the world, which also has the largest total game area for an online game.
Iceland has a highly developed internet culture, with around 95% of the population having internet access, the highest proportion in the world. Iceland ranked 12th in the World Economic Forum's 2009–2010 Network Readiness Index, which measures a country's ability to competitively exploit communications technology. The United Nations International Telecommunication Union ranks the country 3rd in its development of information and communications technology, having moved up four places between 2008 and 2010. In February 2013 the country was working on banning all Internet pornography claiming the images are a threat to children.
Much of Iceland's cuisine is based on fish, lamb, and dairy products, with little to no utilization of herbs or spices. Due to the island's climate, fruits and vegetables aren't generally a component of traditional dishes, although the use of greenhouses has made them more common in contemporary food. Þorramatur is a selection of traditional cuisine consisting of many dishes, and is usually consumed around the month of Þorri, which begins on the first Friday after 19 January. Traditional dishes also include skyr, hákarl (cured shark), cured ram, singed sheep heads, and black pudding. Puffin is considered a local delicacy that is often prepared through broiling.
Breakfast usually consists of pancakes, cereal, fruit, and coffee, while lunch may take the form of a smorgasbord. The main meal of the day for most Icelanders is dinner, which usually involves fish or lamb as the main course. Seafood is central to most Icelandic cooking, particularly cod and haddock but also salmon, herring, and halibut. It is often prepared in a wide variety of ways, either smoked, pickled, boiled, or dried. Lamb is by far the most common meat, and it tends to be either smoke-cured (known as hangikjöt) or salt-preserved (saltkjöt). Many older dishes make use of every part of the sheep, such as slátur, which consists of offal (internal organs and entrails) minced together with blood and served in sheep stomach. Additionally, boiled or mashed potatoes, pickled cabbage, green beans, and rye bread are prevalent side dishes.
Coffee is a popular beverage in Iceland, and is drunk at breakfast, after meals, and with a light snack in mid-afternoon. Coca-Cola is also widely consumed, to the extent that the country is said to have one of the highest per capita consumption rates in the world. Iceland's signature alcoholic beverage is Brennivín (literally "burnt (i.e. distilled) wine"), which is similar to Scandinavian akvavit. It is a type of vodka made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica. Its potency has earned it the nickname svarti dauði ("Black Death").
Sport is an important part of Icelandic culture, as the population is generally quite active. The main traditional sport in Iceland is Glíma, a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times.
Popular sports include association football, track and field, handball and basketball. Handball is often referred to as the national sport, and Iceland's team is ranked among the top 12 in the world. Icelandic women excel at football relative to the size of the country, with the national team ranked 16th by FIFA.
Iceland has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Iceland is also a world-class destination for alpine ski touring and Telemark skiing, with the Troll Peninsula in Northern Iceland being the main centre of activity. Although the county's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless lots of golf courses throughout the island, and Iceland holds the world record for most golf courses per capita with around 5000 individuals per golf course. Iceland regularly hosts an international tournament known as the Arctic Open. Iceland has also won the most competitions for World's Strongest Man, with eight titles shared evenly between Magnús Ver Magnússon and Jón Páll Sigmarsson.
Swimming is popular in Iceland. Geothermally heated outdoor pools are widespread, and swimming courses are a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Horseback riding, which was historically the most prevalent form of transportation on the island, remains a common pursuit for many Icelanders.
The oldest sport association in Iceland is the Reykjavík Shooting Association, founded in 1867. Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century with the encouragement of politicians and nationalists who were pushing for Icelandic independence. To this day, it remains a significant pastime.
Iceland has also produced many chess masters and hosted the historic World Chess Championship 1972 in Reykjavik during the height of the cold war. As of 2008, there have been nine Icelandic chess grandmasters, a considerable number given the small size of the population. Bridge is also popular, with Iceland participating in a number of international tournaments. Iceland won the world bridge championship (the Bermuda Bowl) in Yokohama, Japan, in 1991 and took second place (with Sweden) in Hamilton, Bermuda, in 1950.
- Index of Iceland-related articles
- Outline of Iceland
- List of international rankings
- List of island countries
- New Iceland in Manitoba, Canada
- "Population by country of citizenship, sex and age 1 January 1998-2012". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1174&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=MAN04103%26ti=Population+by+country+of+citizenship%2C+sex+and+age+1+January+1998%2D2012+%26path=../Database/mannfjoldi/Rikisfang/%26lang=1%26units=Number. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Iceland". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=60&pr.y=9&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=176&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
- "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- The country is sometimes erroneously  called the "Republic of Iceland" ( ) and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, but the official name is rather like the official name of Canada - simply the country name. One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized. The official title of the President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) does also not include the word republic as in some other republics. See Names for Iceland.
- "CIA – The World Fact book – Iceland". Government. United States Government. 20 July 2006. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ic.html. Retrieved 6 August 2006.
- "Statistics Iceland". Government. The National Statistical Institute of Iceland. 14 September 2008. http://www.statice.is#Govt. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- Don Young (2 September 2009). Reykjavik Iceland & its Surroundings. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-58843-798-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q-E04qINoCMC&pg=PT30. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Tomasson, Richard F. (1980). Iceland, the first new society. U of Minnesota Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-8166-0913-6.
- "OECD Tax Database". Oecd.org. http://www.oecd.org/document/60/0,2340,en_2649_34533_1942460_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- Ólafsson, Stefán (12 May 2004). "The Icelandic Welfare State and the Conditions of Children". borg.hi.is. http://www.borg.hi.is/ChildWelfare. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "About Iceland. Weather in Iceland. Icelandic Climate. Names in Iceland. Republic of Iceland". Iceland4you.is. http://www.iceland4you.is/eng/iceland/. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
- "Fundforpeace.org. Failed States Index (2011). Retrieved 19.5.2012". Fundforpeace.org. http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=fsi. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "The Global Gender Gap Report 2012". Www3.weforum.org. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- New View on the Origin of First Settlers in Iceland, Iceland Review Online, 4 June 2011, accessed 16 June 2011.
- "The History of Iceland (Gunnar Karlsson) – book review". Dannyreviews.com. http://dannyreviews.com/h/Iceland.html. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- M. Magnusson.The Vikings.P188-191
- "Medieval Scandinavia: an encyclopedia". Phillip Pulsiano, Kirsten Wolf (1993). Taylor & Francis. p.312. ISBN 0-8240-4787-7
- Maddicott, J. R. (2009-06-02). "6th–10th century AD – page 14 | Past & Present". Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n156/ai_20059971/pg_14. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- Robert C. Davis (5 December 2003). Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-333-71966-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=5q9zcB3JS40C&pg=PA7. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- One slaving expedition is inaccurately termed the Turkish Abductions in Icelandic historiography. This was an expedition conducted by a Danish pirate, and the captives were taken to the Barbary Coast to be sold.
- "Iceland: Milestones in Icelandic History". Iceland.vefur.is. http://iceland.vefur.is/iceland_history/history.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Ecological imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900". Alfred W. Crosby (2004). Cambridge University Press. p.52. ISBN 0-521-54618-4
- "When a killer cloud hit Britain". BBC News. January 2007.
- "How volcanoes can change the world". CNN.com. April 16, 2010.
- "For Iceland, an exodus of workers". New York Times. 2008-12-05. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/12/05/business/iceland.php. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- Video: Allies Study Post-War Security Etc. (1944). Universal Newsreel. 1944. http://www.archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.39024. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Vísindavefurinn: ''Hversu há var Marshallaðstoðin sem Ísland fékk eftir seinni heimsstyrjöld?''. Visindavefur.hi.is (2003-05-13). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Margrit Müller, Pathbreakers: Small European Countries Responding to Globalisation and Deglobalisation, p. 385.
- Wilcox and Latif, p. 29
- Lewis, Michael (April 2009). "Wall Street on the Tundra". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2009/04/iceland200904?printable=true¤tPage=all.
- "Iceland lost almost 5000 people in 2009" (PDF). http://www.nordregio.se/Global/JoN/JoN%202010/Jon%201%202010/JoN%201_2010.pdf. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
- "Statistics Iceland - News » News". Statice.is. http://www.statice.is/Pages/444?NewsID=9181. Retrieved 2012-09-22.
- Jolly, David (2010-12-07). "Iceland Recession Ends as Economy Returns to Growth". Iceland;Ireland;Greece: NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/08/business/global/08icecon.html. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Iceland in statistics". Landmælingar Íslands. statice.is. http://www.lmi.is/english/iceland-in-statistics/. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Rivers and Lakes". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/RiversandLakes/. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Geology of Iceland". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/Geology/. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "National Parks". Umhverfisstofnun. 2002. http://english.ust.is/National-Parks/Protectedareas/Nationalparks/. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "2012 EPI :: Rankings | Environmental Performance Index". Epi.yale.edu. http://epi.yale.edu/epi2012/rankings. Retrieved 2012-09-22.
- "Iceland". Jane Simmonds (1999). Langenscheidt. p.100. ISBN 0-88729-176-7
- "Late Holocene climate". Academic.emporia.edu. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec19/holocene.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Atmospheric impact of the 1783–1784 Laki Eruption: Part II Climatic effect of sulphate aerosol". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 2003. http://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/30/09/86/PDF/acpd-3-1599-2003.pdf. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Carmichael, I.S.E. (1964). "The Petrology of Thingmuli, a Tertiary Volcano in Eastern Iceland". J. Petrology 5 (3): 435–460. doi:10.1093/petrology/5.3.435. http://wiki.web.ru/images/7/78/Carmichael64.pdf.
- "Surtsey volcano". Iceland.vefur.is. http://iceland.vefur.is/iceland_nature/Volcanoes_in_Iceland/surtsey.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Volcano erupts near Eyjafjallajoekull in south Iceland". BBC News. 21 March 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8578576.stm. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- "Icelandic volcano glacier melt forces hundreds to flee at bbc.com". BBC News. 2010-04-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8620352.stm. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- "Icelandic volcanic ash alert grounds UK flights". BBC News. 2010-04-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8621407.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Climate, History and the Modern World; Lamb H., 1995, Longman Publ.
- Icelandic Climatic Data (English introduction), Veðurstofa Íslands (Icelandic Meteorological Office)
- Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart from above site
- "Wildlife". Iceland Worldwide. iww.is. 2000. http://www.iww.is/pages/alife/biglf.html. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Polar bears". Nat.is. http://www.nat.is/Spendyr/polar_bear.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- "Wild Mammals In Iceland". Nat.is. http://www.nat.is/Spendyr/wild_mammals.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- David R. Montgomery, Dirt: The Erosion of Civilisations, University of California Press, 2007, pp. 224–225
- "Second polar bear killed in Iceland". icenews.is. IceNews. 17 June 2008. http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2008/06/17/second-polar-bear-killed-in-iceland/. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- Wilcox, Jonathon (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0761420746.
- "Hvalveiðiákvörðun stendur í ár – Frétt – AMX". Amx.is. http://www.amx.is/vidskipti/4381. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Hvalveiðarnar hefjast í júníbyrjun" (in Icelandic). skip.vb.is. 12 March 2009. http://skip.vb.is/frettir/nr/12499. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Hafrannsóknastofnunin". Hafro.is. http://www.hafro.is/undir_eng.php?ID=15&REF=2. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- tags (2012-02-02). "2012. 12.5.2012". Newsroom.uts.edu.au. http://newsroom.uts.edu.au/news/2012/02/whaling-nations-could-trade-eco-warriors-for-eco-tourists. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Japan receptive to further engagement on whaling (Wikileaks telegram 10TOKYO171)". U.S. Department of State. 27. January 2010. http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2010/01/10TOKYO171.html. Retrieved 3. January 2011.
- Cultures of the World: Iceland, Wilcox and Latif, p. 34
- "The Icelandic Experience". Chumirethicsfoundation.ca. http://www.chumirethicsfoundation.ca/files/pdf/HANDOUT%20-%20AllWoman'sParty020908.pdf. Retrieved 212-11-19.
- "2009. Retrieved 12.5.2012". Ipu.org. 2012-09-30. http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Democracy Index 2011 – Economist Intelligence Unit. Eiu.com. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Corruption Perceptions Index: Transparency International. Cpi.transparency.org (2011-11-25). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Iceland – OECD Better Life Index. Oecdbetterlifeindex.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Power Struggle. Marguerite Del Giudice. National Geographic. March 2008. p. 85.
- "Government & Politics". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/government-and-politics/. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Local Government". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/government-and-politics/Government/LocalGovernment/. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Iceland passes gay marriage law in unanimous vote retrieved 30 March 2012
- Associated Press in Reykjavik (16 July 2009). "Icelandic parliament votes for EU membership | World news". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jul/16/iceland-parliament-votes-eu-membership. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Iceland applies to join European Union". CNN. 17 July 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/07/17/iceland.eu.application/index.html?eref=edition_business.
- "French Air Force in Iceland". Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 5 May 2008. http://www.mfa.is/speeches-and-articles/nr/4240. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "Air Policing". NATO Air Command Operations. http://www.aco.nato.int/page142085426.aspx. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "Stjórnsýslusvið < Starfsemi < Vefsvæði". Lhg.is. http://www.lhg.is/starfsemi/stjornsyslusvid/frettir/nr/618. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Stjórnsýslusvið < Starfsemi < Vefsvæði". Lhg.is. http://www.lhg.is/starfsemi/stjornsyslusvid/frettir/nr/1363. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- 2011 METHODOLOGY, RESULTS & FINDINGS. Institute for Economics and Peace (2011). visionofhumanity.org
- "Trade and Economy, Embassy of Iceland, Undated. Retrieved 24 March 2010". Iceland.org. http://www.iceland.org/us/the-embassy/trade-economy/. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- News – Iceland second in the world's quality of life index. Invest.is. 5 September 2007. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Income distribution – Inequality. Stats.oecd.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "2011. Retrieved 14.5.2012". Hdr.undp.org. http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/ihdi/. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table. Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu (2012-04-02). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "Iceland Review. "Unemployment Drops Below 5 Percent" 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-07-16". Icelandreview.com. http://icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/Unemployment_Drops_Below_5_Percent_0_391737.news.aspx. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Icelandic EU-membership heavily debated. dmjx.dk
- "Gallup Icelandic Euro vote poll". http://www.si.is/media/althjodlegt-samstarf/almenningur_2010-02.pdf.
- 67% myndu hafna ESB-aðild. mbl.is (2012-02-28). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- GDP – composition by sector. CIA.gov
- "Milestones of OMX and its Legal Entities". nasdaqomx.com. Archived from the original on 2008-11-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20081116011930/http://www.nasdaqomx.com/whoweare/milestones/milestonesomx/. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- "Index of Economic Freedom 2012. Retrieved 19-6-2012". Heritage.org. 2012-01-12. http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. World Economic Forum (2011)
- Global Innovation Index 2011. Globalinnovationindex.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "Index of Economic Freedom 2008 – Iceland". Web.archive.org. 2008-02-14. Archived from the original on 2008-02-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20080214155328/http://www.heritage.org/index/country.cfm?id=Iceland. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- "Economic survey of Iceland 2008". Oecd.org. http://www.oecd.org/document/36/0,3343,en_2649_34569_40157540_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- Lynch, David J. (2008-04-01). "Bank default worries slam Iceland's currency". Usatoday.Com. http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2008-04-01-iceland-banks_N.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Retrieved 10-5-2012". Oecd.org. http://www.oecd.org/document/16/0,3746,en_2649_34569_43946384_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Economic Survey of Iceland 2011. Oecd.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Country Comparison :: Public debt. CIA World Factbook
- "Waking up to reality in Iceland". BBC News. 26 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7852275.stm. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- "BBC NEWS | The Reporters | Robert Peston". Bbc.co.uk. 2008-10-04. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2008/10/creditors_call_time_on_iceland.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- "Gud velsigne Island! ( Finanskrisen, Makro og politkk, Utenriks )". E24.no. 2008-10-06. http://e24.no/spesial/finanskrisen/article2696518.ece. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- Iceland Raises interest rates after global bank run[dead link]
- Gilmore, Gráinne (27 February 2009). "Iceland’s central bank chief David Oddsson is forced out". The Times (London: timesonline.co.uk). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/banking_and_finance/article5811719.ece. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Islandsk innvandringsboom til Norge" (in Norwegian). NRK. 2010-06-30. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/distrikt/rogaland/1.7190612. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- "Althingi – Report of the Special Investigation Commission (SIC)". Sic.althingi.is. 2010-04-12. http://sic.althingi.is/. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- Gylfason 2010
- "Iceland Review, "Half of Iceland’s Icesave Debt Repaid," 19.6.2012. Retrieved 19.6.2012". Icelandreview.com. http://www.icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/Half_of_Iceland%E2%80%99s_Icesave_Debt_Repaid_0_391042.news.aspx. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Inhabitants per passenger car, in 2008". Statistics Iceland. 2008. http://statice.is/?PageID=1236&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=SAM03101%26ti=Registered+motor+vehicles+1950-2008++%26path=../Database/ferdamal/Okutaeki/%26lang=1%26units=Number. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Driving in Iceland: Iceland Driving Tips for Visitors – How to Drive in Iceland – Driving Tips for Iceland Travelers – Driving Cars in Scandinavia". Goscandinavia.about.com. 2007-12-04. http://goscandinavia.about.com/od/mapstransportation/tp/drivinginiceland.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- "tripsta". http://www.tripsta.co.uk.
- "Renewable energy in Iceland". Nordic Energy Solutions. http://www.nordicenergysolutions.org/performance-policy/iceland/renewable-energy-in-iceland. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Gross energy consumption by source 1987–2005". statice.is. http://www.statice.is/Uploads/files/LH06/L060701.xls. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Statistics Iceland – Statistics " Manufacturing and energy " Energy". statice.is. http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1230&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=IDN02101%26ti=Installed+capacity+and+generation+in+public+power+plants+1976-2007+%26path=../Database/idnadur/orkumal/%26lang=1%26units=Megawatt/Gigawatt%20hour%20/percent. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Hellisheiði Geothermal Plant". Orkuveita Reykjavíkur. http://www.or.is/English/Projects/HellisheidiGeothermalPlant/. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Nesjavellir Geothermal Plant". Orkuveita Reykjavíkur. http://www.or.is/English/Projects/NesjavellirGeothermalPlant/. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Kárahnjúkar HEP – WEC Executive Assembly 2009". worldenergy.org. http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/20090917__wec_krahnjkar_bb.pdf. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "CO2 EMISSIONS FROM FUEL COMBUSTION Highlights (2011 Edition)". INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY. http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
- Phaedra Friend (22 January 2009). "Iceland Opens First-Ever Offshore Licensing Round". Rigzone. http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=71990. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "ReadArticle / Mayor Does Not Feel School Should Be Mandatory" (in (Icelandic)). Grapevine.is. 2011-08-25. http://grapevine.is/Author/ReadArticle/Mayor-Does-Not-Feel-School-Should-Be-Mandatory. Retrieved 2012-09-22.
- "Homeschooling international status and statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_international_status_and_statistics#Iceland. Retrieved 2012-09-22.
- Jonathan Fox (2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State (Cambridge Studies in Social Theory, Religion and Politics). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70758-9. http://books.google.com/?id=rE0NcgxNaKEC&pg=PA118&dq=iceland+flag+christianity#v=onepage&q=iceland&f=false. Retrieved 2007-12-31. "All public schools have mandatory education in Christianity. Formally, only the Minister of Education has the power to exempt students from this but individual schools usually grant informal exemptions."
- "What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science 2010". OECD.org. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/54/12/46643496.pdf. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "UNESCO science report, 2010: the current status of science around the world; 2010" (PDF). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001899/189958E.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Helgason, Agnar; Sigureth Ardóttir, S; Nicholson, J; Sykes, B; Hill, EW; Bradley, DG; Bosnes, V; Gulcher, JR et al. (2000). "Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic Ancestry in the Male Settlers of Iceland". American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (3): 697–717. doi:10.1086/303046. PMC 1287529. PMID 10931763. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1287529/.
- "Expectations of life: a study in the demography, statistics, and history of world mortality". Henry Oliver Lancaster (1990). Springer. p.399. ISBN 0-387-97105-X
- "The eruption that changed Iceland forever". BBC News. April 16, 2010.
- Statistics Iceland – Statistics » Population » Births and deaths. Statice.is. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "2012. Retrieved 11.5.2012". Eng.velferdarraduneyti.is. http://eng.velferdarraduneyti.is/departments/gender-equality/. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Population projection by main indicators 2012-2060". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1179&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=MAN09012%26ti=Population+projection+by+main+indicators+2012%2D2060++++++%26path=../Database/mannfjoldi/mannfjoldaspa2010/%26lang=1%26units=Number.
- "ICELAND: Migration Appears Here Too – IPS". Ipsnews.net. http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=35572. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Europe | Iceland faces immigrant exodus". BBC News. 2008-10-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7680087.stm. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- Tomasson, Richard F. (1977). "A Millennium of Misery: The Demography of the Icelanders". Population Studies (Population Investigation Committee) 31 (3): 405–406. doi:10.2307/2173366. JSTOR 2173366. PMID 11630504.
- "The Fate of Greenland's Vikings". Archaeology.org. 2000-02-28. http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/greenland/. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- "Select a Race, Ethnic, or Ancestry Group". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFactsCharIteration?_event=&geo_id=01000US&_geoContext=01000US&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=factsheet_2&ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF&_ci_nbr=539&qr_name=DEC_2000_SAFF_A1010®=DEC_2000_SAFF_A1010%3A539&_keyword=&_industry=. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Icelandic Language". Iceland Trade Directory. icelandexport.is. http://www.icelandexport.is/english/about_iceland/icelandic_language/. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Heimur – Útgáfufyrirtækið". Heimur.is. http://www.heimur.is/heimur/leit/frettir/Default.asp?ew_1_a_id=138249. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- Information about the Icelandic Health Care System. Ministry of Health, Iceland
- "Surgery in Iceland". Arch Surg 141 (2): 199. 2006. PMID 16490899. http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/141/2/199#SEC8.
- Retrieved 27-4-2012. Nationmaster.com. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- OECD Health Data 2011. Oecd.org (2011-06-30). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- World Health Organization: Health Report 2010
- OECD Health Data 2011. oecd.org
- World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. Esa.un.org (2011-06-28). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- World Population Prospects The 2006 Revision. United Nation (2007)
- Wilcox and Latif, p. 19
- Environment Indicators. Oecdbetterlifeindex.org. Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "University of Michigan News Service". Umich.edu. 1997-12-10. http://www.umich.edu/news/index.html?Releases/1997/Dec97/chr121097a. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Religion < People and Society < Iceland.is – Gateway to Iceland". Iceland.is. http://www.iceland.is/people-and-society/Religion/. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- Froese, Paul (2001). "Hungary for Religion: A Supply-Side Interpretation of the Hungarian Religious Revival". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40 (2): 251–268. doi:10.1111/0021-8294.00054.
- "European Commission Eurobarometer Social values, Science and Technology analysis June 2005 p.35" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf.
- Wilcox and Latif, pp. 65, 70.
- "2012. Retrieved 30.4.2012". Icenews.is. 2012-01-05. http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2012/01/05/iceland-among-the-happiest-nations/. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Iceland parliament votes for gay marriage". Icenews.is. http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2010/06/11/iceland-parliament-votes-for-gay-marriage/. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- Wilcox and Latif, pp. 66–67.
- Wilcox and Latif, pp. 60–61.
- Best and Worst Countries for Women, from Iceland to the U.S. to Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Daily Beast (2011-09-18). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- Augusto Lopez-Claros, Saadia Zahidi Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap. World Economic Forum (2005)
- BBC News – Iceland 'best country for gender equality'. Bbc.co.uk (2010-10-12). Retrieved on 2012-04-28.
- "(Cultural Achievements) Retrieved 13.5.2012". State.gov. 2012-06-15. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3396.htm. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Cultures of the World: Iceland. 2nd Edition, 2007. Wilcox and Latif, p. 61.
- "2012. Retrieved 1.5.2012". This.is. http://this.is/klingogbang/text.php. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "The Icelandic National Anthem". musik og saga. http://www.musik.is/Lof/E/lofe.html. Retrieved 11 November 2005.
- Cronshaw, Andrew. 1999. Iceland. In World Music: The Rough Guide. London: Rough Guides Ltd. pp. 168–69.
- "Vísindavefurinn: Hver er mest sótta heimasíðan á veraldarvefnum?" (in (Icelandic)). Visindavefur.hi.is. http://www.visindavefur.hi.is/svar.php?id=5456. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- Dyball, Richard (14 July 2007). "Yes, I’m the real Sportacus". The Times (London: timesonline.co.uk). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/stage/theatre/article2055496.ece. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "Iceland passes law on press freedom and protection | IceNews – Daily News". Icenews.is. 2010-06-17. http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2010/06/17/iceland-passes-law-on-press-freedom-and-protection/. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
- GLOBAL PRESS FREEDOM RANKINGS. Freedom of the Press (2011)freedomhouse.org
- Percentage of Individuals using the Internet. itu.int (2010)
- "The Networked Readiness Index 2009-2010". Members.weforum.org. https://members.weforum.org/pdf/GITR10/TheNetworkedReadinessIndexRankings.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "2011. Retrieved 29.4.2012 (pg. 12)" (PDF). http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/backgrounders/general/pdf/5.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Iceland wants to ban Internet porn". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/02/15/tech/web/porn-ban-iceland/index.html. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. pp. 126. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 109. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 110. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- FIFA (28 May 2010). "FIFA/Coca-Cola Women's World Ranking". http://www.fifa.com/worldfootball/ranking/lastranking/gender=f/fullranking.html. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 111. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. pp. 111. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- "Skotfélag Reykjavíkur". Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013013843/http://sr.is/Stofnun_og_saga_SR.htm. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- Wilcox, Jonathan (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 112. ISBN 0-7614-2074-6.
- Wilcox, Jonathan and Latif, Zawiah Abdul (15 April 2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=58ZHaTMk0j4C. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Further reading
- Davis, Robert C. 2003. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Gylfason, Thorvaldur. 2010. "Iceland’s special investigation: The plot thickens". VoxEU.org. 2010-04-30. http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4965. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- Jonsson, Asgeir (2008). Why Iceland? How One of the World's Smallest Countries Became the Meltdown's Biggest Casualty. McGraw–Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-163284-3.
- Jonsson, Ivar (2012) 'Explaining the Crisis of Iceland - A Realist Approach' in Journal of Critical Realism, 11,1.
- "Hagstofa Íslands – Hagtölur " Mannfjöldi " Mannfjöldaspá". Statistics Iceland. http://statice.is. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
|Find more about Iceland at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Icelandic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Gateway to Iceland
- Government Offices of Iceland
- Icelandic Government Information Center & Icelandic Embassies
- Visit Iceland – the official Icelandic Tourist Board
- Inspired by Iceland
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Iceland entry at The World Factbook
- Iceland entry at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Iceland from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Iceland at the Open Directory Project
- Iceland from the BBC News
- #Iceland Icelandic Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel
- Wikimedia Atlas of Iceland
- Geographic data related to Iceland at OpenStreetMap
- Incredible Iceland: Fire and Ice – slideshow by Life magazine
- Wikia has a wiki on this subject at World Wikia: Iceland
- vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole
- The Norse in the North Atlantic: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Memorial University of Newfoundland.
- A Photographer’s View of Iceland Documentary produced by Prairie Public Television
This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer)
If you are unable to view some languages clearly, click here.