What true about the formation of bonds?
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An ionic bond is formed when atoms combine with each other by first gaining or losing electrons in their outer energy levels. Covalent bonds form when two atoms share electron…s. (MORE)
The method of bond formation is stealing electrons and other things because the element needs as much electrons as it can to become positive and dominate the atom and become a… covelant bond which is better and more efficiant for atoms. (MORE)
the condition for covalent bond is that both has to be non metal so that they can share their valence electrons to form duplet or octet configuration
Chemical reactions, and the ensuing bonds, give the field of chemistry so much of its relevance in the world. Chemical bonds can come in a number of different forms, depending… on the elements reacting and other factors, and bonds vary in strength. One bond that is worth discussing is the hydrogen bond, a particularly special case in chemical reactions. The nature of the bond, the requirements for it to exist, its relative strength, and the ways it's tangibly used are all important topics to be approached.Chemistry has helped to define several types of bonding, both intramolecular and intermolecular, and they can vary greatly in nature. First of all, intermolecular forces include hydrogen bonds and others, while intramolecular bonds include ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds. Hydrogen bonds are those formed when a charged region of a molecule with polar covalent bonds begins to interact with another charged substance. There must be an oppositely-charged substance for a hydrogen bond to exist and polar covalent bonding must also be present.When comparing strength between chemical compound bond types, it becomes evident that some are significantly stronger than others. In general, intramolecular bonding is much stronger than intermolecular bonding/forces, so hydrogen bonds are not among the strongest. In fact, hydrogen bonds are known as weak bonds and they are characterized by rapid formation and an inability to resist breaking under normal conditions. Forming between different molecules, hydrogen bonds are no match (strength-wise) for those which form between atoms of a molecule such as ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds.As with any type of bonding, there are numerous sorts of substances in which chemists have observed hydrogen bonding. Under normal conditions, bond types can form if their basic requirements for existence are met and hydrogen bonds are no different. Theoretically, any molecule whose atoms exhibit polar covalent bonding may undergo hydrogen bonding and one of the most common is water. With the diverse array of applications for water, the importance of hydrogen bonds in determining its properties is evident.It goes without saying that water is important to human life, but there are other biological roles for hydrogen bonds. One of the most common substances in which hydrogen bonding is seen is DNA, where they help to stabilize and provide structure. Enzyme catalysis also involves hydrogen bonding, as proteins commonly use the bonds in their daily functions. In enzyme catalysis, which is vital to the body, macromolecules known as enzymes expedite chemical reactions and this function could not proceed without hydrogen bonds.Chemical bonds bear a significant role in determining the physical properties of substances and their applications are determined therein. Hydrogen bonds, while not among the strongest bonds, are useful in linking together atoms in a very particular fashion. These electrically-driven, intermolecular bonds are often used in biological applications, transcending their importance in the field of chemistry. Even one of the simplest (and one of the most important) substances in the universe, water, couldn't exist the way it does without hydrogen bonds.Hydrogen bonds are those formed when a charged region of a molecule with polar covalent bonds begins to interact with another charged substance. There must be an oppositely-charged substance for a hydrogen bond to exist and polar covalent bonding must also be present. (MORE)
Choosing the right investment is never an easy decision. What is the safest route? What is likely to yield the greatest return with the smallest risk? Are treasury bonds safe?… Before deciding, you must first have treasury bonds explained.A treasury bond is one the U.S. government backs. They are the safest investment in the world because they offer an ironclad guarantee stating your money is safe. You do not receive this guarantee with the stock market or from banks. Yes, they do. The United States considers them marketable securities, meaning the government sells them to pay off debt and raise the money necessary to run it. The bonds are beneficial to you, too. There is a specific interest rate they pay to you semi-annually until maturity. You can buy treasury bonds in two-, three-, five- and 10-year terms.Yes, but only three are true bonds. Treasury bills are short-term bonds that mature within one year or less from the date of purchase. They offer lower yields on their returns because of their quick maturity.Treasury notes mature within one, three, five, seven or 10 years from the date of purchase, and the bonds take 20 to 30 years to mature. The longer it takes for treasury bond to mature, the higher the yield on the return.Yes, there are two: inflation and currency. Both can reduce the value of your bond without you realizing it. If inflation is 5 percent per year, you lose $5 for every hundred. This includes the value of your bonds. If the value of the dollar decreases, it negatively impacts the money you are saving in your bond and the interest payment you receive.Even with the risks involved, treasury bonds are still the safest investment in comparison to all others. This, of course, is opinion. Now that you have bonds explained to you, the choice is yours.Although treasury bonds yield the lowest return, it is important to continuously transfer your investments to treasury bonds the closer you get to retirement.These are the only investments that guarantee your money is safe. (MORE)
In Social Life
It is tough making true friends at any age, even as a teen. It is important to form strong bonds with your friends as you make the transition from childhood to adulthood. Cons…ider these tips for understanding the meaning of true friends.This seems like a simple concept, but it is easy to lose the ability to sit down and have a conversation with your friends. Spend less time chatting, emailing and texting and more time talking with your friends face-to-face. Gaining the ability to listen to your friends and sharing with them helps develop true friendships that last.Plan outings with your friends so you spend more time together. If some of your friends claim to be too busy to spend time with you, then find friends who are willing to spend that extra time with you. These are your true friends. You possibly have friends who do not want to take time out for you and expect you to do so for them; this is not a sign of a healthy, lasting friendship.If your friends tend to get along well with your parents, this is often a sign of true friends. Your parents only want what is best for you and are more skeptical of your friends than you are. If they see positive attributes in your friends, then that is a signal that these friends have certain qualities that mesh well with your qualities.Under most circumstances, a true friend does not turn his back on a friend in crisis. Do not betray your friends, and do not remain friends with someone who betrays you. Sometimes, mistakes are made and apologies patch up damaged friendships, but a consistent pattern of betrayal points to a friendship that has no lasting value. You never know who is likely to share your interests. It is important for true friends to have similar interests to maintain a strong bond. Do not discount a classmate or neighbor who enjoys what you enjoy simply because of looks. If you are interested in a particular type of music or genre of book, seek out someone who also has that same interest. This connection goes a long way toward forming a lasting friendship. It is never easy to make true friends, but if you spend time with your friends and respect their feelings and interests, you form stronger bonds that last well beyond your teen years. Getting to know your true friends is an enriching experience that allows you to have a healthier overall outlook on life.For years, it was thought girls were better equipped to handle the ups and downs in teenage friendships. However, in a study conducted by Boston College and Duke University in 2011, the opposite was found to be true. Girls were found to be more devastated than boys when their friends let them down. (MORE)
Savings bonds have long been sold as a way of raising money by the Federal government. War bonds were the first of these bonds sold in the modern era. They were marketed as a …way that people could economically support the war effort and were bought by many people as an act of patriotism. Savings bonds have proven to be a reliable, yet slow growing, savings vehicle for people over many generations. Gulf Coast Recovery Bonds are I Bonds that were issued in 2006 and 2007. Proceeds of these bonds did not directly benefit recovery in the Gulf Coast, but it did raise money for general appropriations and government business, including Gulf Coast recovery funding.I Bonds and EE Bonds have more similarities than differences. They both have a minimum purchase price of $25, and there is a maximum aggregate purchase limit of $10,000 per year for each social security number. Both types of bonds can be cashed 12 months after their issue dates. Interest is compounded semiannually for up to 30 years for both bonds. The major difference is in the interest rate that the bond earns. EE Bonds purchased after May 2005 earn a fixed rate of return based on the rate in effect at the time the bond was purchased. I Bonds earn interest based on a fixed rate established at the time the bond is purchased and an inflation rate based on the Consumer Price Index.The attractive part of I Bonds is that a portion of the interest rate calculation is based on the rate of inflation. The U.S. Treasury has set a floor on the rate at 0 percent, so in times of deflation the bonds will not lose value. Many other investment products that are indexed to inflation carry the risk that the yield at times could be negative. The rate is re-calculated twice per year in May and November. Because of the inflation indexing, I Bonds tend to outperform EE Bonds, but this is not true all of the time. Any interest earned on an I Bond is taxable, but it is tax-deferred until the bond is redeemed. The interest is also exempt from local and state taxes. In addition to those tax benefits, the Education Savings Bond Program provides for complete or partial tax exemption of savings bond interest is the bond is used to cover expenses of higher education. There are requirements that have to be met such as the expense has to take place in the same year as the bond redemption. If you intend to use the bond for education expenses, you should read the requirements beforehand since there are some details about who can own the bonds.Individuals who have a Social Security Number and are U.S. citizens, residents, or civilian employees of the U.S. government may purchase I Bonds. There are some restrictions for minors. I Bonds are purchased at their face value and can be purchased for as little as $25. The easiest way to purchase I Bonds is through TreasuryDirect which is run the U.S. Treasury. You will not receive a paper bond, rather an electronic bond is held in your online account. I Bonds can also be purchased with your IRS tax refund.I Bonds can be redeemed as soon as 12 months after their issue date, however if the bond is less than five years old, you will lose the last three months interest. I Bonds continue to earn interest for 30 years and are meant to be a long term investment. You can redeem paper bonds at most local banks. For electronic bonds, go to your TreasuryDirect account and follow the instructions for redeeming securities. There is no limit to how many bonds can be redeemed at any one time. Redemptions must be for a minimum of $25 redemption value. At the time you redeem your bonds, you will be given a form for tax purposes.I Bonds are a safe investment vehicle since they will always be worth at least the face value of the bond. The U.S. government backs them, so default is highly unlikely. I Bonds are a great tool for saving for college since they are tax exempt if used for that purpose. They also are easily accessible and therefore make a great addition to, or replacement of, savings accounts. If you are using them to supplement retirement income, there is no age related penalty for redeeming your bonds, unlike an IRA that carries serious tax penalties for early withdrawal.A savings bond issued by the U.S. Treasury is a debt security which helps pay for government expenses. There are only two types of savings bonds, series EE and I bonds. (MORE)
It is never too late to learn about the benefits of investing money. It is a lesson many put off, due to the traditional risk that often comes with investing. A great starting… point is to purchase U.S. savings bonds. This is a low-risk investment option with an added tax benefit advantage. Owners do not pay state or local income taxes on their bonds. Here are some tips to keep in mind before making a purchase. As of January 2012, the U.S. treasury no longer sells paper savings bonds. The purchase and ownership process has become fully electronic. Now the only way to purchase a savings bond, is by opening a free account on the U.S. treasury department website. In the event you are purchasing a savings bond for a minor child, you will first need to open an account for yourself. Once established, you can open an account for your child and link it to your account. In order to open an account, you will need to provide a full name, bank account information, and social security number for yourself and the minor child, if the bond is a gift.The investing portion of a savings bond comes into play as interest is earned. By purchasing a savings bond at the end of the month, you will be entitled to receive the interest payment as if you had owned the bond for month's entirety. This stands true, even if you buy a savings bond on the last day of the month.A U.S. savings bond may be purchased for yourself, or as a gift for someone else. At the time of purchase, you will need to state who the intended recipient will be. In the event that it is for a minor child, the parent or legal guardian of that child may also need to be on the bond. At the very least, they will need to provide account information, including the child's full name and social security number, in order to claim the savings bond as a gift..Traditionally savings bonds were set up to earn interest for a maximum of 30 years. This is still the case with bonds sold today. Once that 30-year mark has been reached, the savings bond will no longer accrue interest. The best course of action for you at that point, is to cash in the bond at your bank. Interest earned is reported to the IRS each year. Failure to cash in a bond after the 30-year interest period has expired, may result in you being required to pay taxes on the full interest amount, regardless of whether or not it has been cashed.The initial waiting period for a savings bond, before any funds can be received, starts at six month. This period can be extended up to one year, in some cases. In addition to this time period, you will incur penalties for making a withdrawal at any time during the first five years of the bond. Make sure you are not in quick need of the money, before purchasing a savings bond.It is true that there is little to no risk involved in purchasing and owning a U.S. savings bond. However, you will pay a slight price for the lack of risk in the investment. Savings bonds do maintain a high inflation rate. As a result, you may see very little interest accrual over the lifetime of your bond.U.S. savings bonds are a great way to get your feet wet, without putting much on the line. The initial six month to one year waiting period, before being allowed to make a withdrawal, should help curb any initial reaction on your part to take the money back. This will show if you maintain the self-control needed to engage in other forms of investment opportunities. Savings bonds are a great way for you to help a special child in your life start off on the right financial foot.President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the first U.S. savings bond in 1935. This presidential act created a way for American citizens to take an active part in government financial operations. The first bonds sold through the new program helped to finance World War II efforts. (MORE)
Few people gravitate to bonds looking to grow their investment. Instead, the investor is more focused on keeping what they have invested in a conservatively focused investment…. Mutual funds invested in bonds have a distinct advantage over their bond ETF counterparts. (MORE)
Chemical Bonding Supervisor
Shared, because they're bonded together in order for the valence electrons to fill the octet rule.
Chemical Bonding Supervisor
Metallic bonds involve free electrons delocalised over the metal. A very simple description is a sea of electrons with positivelly charged metal atoms.
Ionic bonds are formed in the process of ionic bonding. The method of bond formation is simply known as ionic bonding. For example, when H+ and Cl- atoms meet, they form bonds… with each by going through ionic bonding to form HCl. (MORE)